The TRUTH About The


The Real Truth Comes From God's Word Not From Man's Interpretation of It


Scriptural FACTS       = GOD'S Word of TRUTH

Jehovah's Witnesses [2]   

Jehovah's Witnesses 

World headquarters in Warwick, New York 


Nontrinitarian, Restorationist 


Governing Body 


Hierarchical [1]   




Warwick, New York, U.S. 


Charles Taze Russell [2]   


Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S. 


Jehovah's Witnesses splinter groups 




8.45 million 

Official website 

Statistics from 2017 Grand Totals [3]   

Jehovah's Witnesses   is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity. [4]   The group reports a worldwide membership of 8.45 million adherents involved in evangelism and an annual Memorial attendance of around 20 million. [3]   Jehovah's Witnesses are directed by the Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses, a group of elders in Warwick, New York, which establishes all doctrines [5]   based on its interpretations of the Bible. [6][7]   They believe that the destruction of the present world system at Armageddon is imminent, and that the establishment of God's kingdom over the earth is the only solution for all problems faced by humanity. [8]    

The group emerged from the Bible Student movement founded in the late 1870s by Charles Taze Russell, who also co-founded Zion's Watch Tower Tract Society in 1881 to organize and print the movement's publications. [2]   A leadership dispute after Russell's death resulted in several groups breaking away, with Joseph Franklin Rutherford retaining control of the Watch Tower Society and its properties. [9]   Rutherford made significant organizational and doctrinal changes, including adoption of the name Jehovah's witnesses [note 1]   in 1931 to distinguish them from other Bible Student groups and symbolize a break with the legacy of Russell's traditions. [10][11][12][13]    

Jehovah's Witnesses are best known for their door-to-door preaching, distributing literature such as The Watchtower and Awake!, and refusing military service and blood transfusions. They consider the use of God's name vital for proper worship. They reject Trinitarianism, inherent immortality of the soul, and hellfire, which they consider to be unscriptural doctrines. They do not observe Christmas, Easter, birthdays or other holidays and customs they consider to have pagan origins incompatible with Christianity. [14]   They prefer to use their own Bible translation, the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures, [15]   although their literature occasionally quotes and cites other Bible translations. [16][17]   Adherents commonly refer to their body of beliefs as "The Truth" and consider themselves to be "in the Truth". [18]   They consider secular society to be morally corrupt and under the influence of Satan, and most limit their social interaction with non-Witnesses. [19]   Congregational disciplinary actions include disfellowshipping, their term for formal expulsion and shunning. [20]   Baptized individuals who formally leave are considered disassociated and are also shunned. Disfellowshipped and disassociated individuals may eventually be reinstated if deemed repentant. [21]    

The group's position regarding conscientious objection to military service and refusal to salute national flags has brought it into conflict with some governments. Consequently, some Jehovah's Witnesses have been persecuted and their activities are banned or restricted in some countries. Persistent legal challenges by Jehovah's Witnesses have influenced legislation related to civil rights in several countries. [22]    

The organization has received criticism regarding biblical translation, doctrines, and alleged coercion of its members. The Watch Tower Society has made various unfulfilled predictions about major biblical events such as Christ's Second Coming, the advent of God's Kingdom, and Armageddon. Their policies for handling cases of child sexual abuse have been the subject of various formal inquiries.




Main article: History of Jehovah's Witnesses 

Background (1870–1916)

See also: Bible Student movement 


Pastor Russell, founder of the Watch Tower Society 

In 1870, Charles Taze Russell and others formed a group in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to study the Bible. [23]   During the course of his ministry, Russell disputed many beliefs of mainstream Christianity including immortality of the soul, hellfire, predestination, the fleshly return of Jesus Christ, the Trinity, and the burning up of the world. [24]   In 1876, Russell met Nelson H. Barbour; later that year they jointly produced the book Three Worlds, which combined restitutionist views with end time prophecy. The book taught that God's dealings with humanity were divided dispensationally, each ending with a "harvest," that Christ had returned as an invisible spirit being in 1874 [24]   inaugurating the "harvest of the Gospel age," and that 1914 would mark the end of a 2520-year period called "the Gentile Times," [25]   at which time world society would be replaced by the full establishment of God's kingdom on earth. [26][27][28]   Beginning in 1878 Russell and Barbour jointly edited a religious journal, Herald of the Morning. [29]   In June 1879 the two split over doctrinal differences, and in July, Russell began publishing the magazine Zion's Watch Tower and Herald of Christ's Presence, [30]   stating that its purpose was to demonstrate that the world was in "the last days," and that a new age of earthly and human restitution under the reign of Christ was imminent. [31]    

From 1879, Watch Tower supporters gathered as autonomous congregations to study the Bible topically. Thirty congregations were founded, and during 1879 and 1880, Russell visited each to provide the format he recommended for conducting meetings. [32][33][34]   In 1881, Zion's Watch Tower Tract Society was presided over by William Henry Conley, and in 1884, Russell incorporated the society as a non-profit business to distribute tracts and Bibles. [35][36][37]   By about 1900, Russell had organized thousands of part- and full-time colporteurs, [30]   and was appointing foreign missionaries and establishing branch offices. By the 1910s, Russell's organization maintained nearly a hundred "pilgrims," or traveling preachers. [38]   Russell engaged in significant global publishing efforts during his ministry, [39][40]   and by 1912, he was the most distributed Christian author in the United States. [41][42]    

Russell moved the Watch Tower Society's headquarters to Brooklyn, New York, in 1909, combining printing and corporate offices with a house of worship; volunteers were housed in a nearby residence he named Bethel. He identified the religious movement as "Bible Students," and more formally as the International Bible Students Association. [43]   By 1910, about 50,000 people worldwide were associated with the movement [44]   and congregations re-elected him annually as their "pastor." [45]   Russell died October 31, 1916, at the age of 64 while returning from a ministerial speaking tour. [46]    

Reorganization (1917–1942)


Joseph F. Rutherford, founder of Jehovah's Witnesses

In January 1917, the Watch Tower Society's legal representative, Joseph Franklin Rutherford, was elected as its next president. His election was disputed, and members of the Board of Directors accused him of acting in an autocratic and secretive manner. [47][48]   The divisions between his supporters and opponents triggered a major turnover of members over the next decade. [49][7]   In June 1917, he released The Finished Mystery as a seventh volume of Russell's Studies in the Scriptures series. The book, published as the posthumous work of Russell, was a compilation of his commentaries on the Bible books of Ezekiel and Revelation, plus numerous additions by Bible Students Clayton Woodworth and George Fisher. [50][51][52][53]   It strongly criticized Catholic and Protestant clergy and Christian involvement in the Great War. [54]   As a result, Watch Tower Society directors were jailed for sedition under the Espionage Act in 1918 and members were subjected to mob violence; the directors were released in March 1919 and charges against them were dropped in 1920. [55]    

Rutherford centralized organizational control of the Watch Tower Society. In 1919, he instituted the appointment of a director in each congregation, and a year later all members were instructed to report their weekly preaching activity to the Brooklyn headquarters. [56]   At an international convention held at Cedar Point, Ohio, in September 1922, a new emphasis was made on house-to-house preaching. [57]   Significant changes in doctrine and administration were regularly introduced during Rutherford's twenty-five years as president, including the 1920 announcement that the Hebrew patriarchs (such as Abraham and Isaac) would be resurrected in 1925, marking the beginning of Christ's thousand-year earthly Kingdom. [58][59][60][61]   Because of disappointment over the changes and unfulfilled predictions, tens of thousands of defections occurred during the first half of Rutherford's tenure, leading to the formation of several Bible Student organizations independent of the Watch Tower Society, [62][63][64][65]   most of which still exist. [66]   By mid-1919, as many as one in seven of Russell-era Bible Students had ceased their association with the Society, and as many as three-quarters by the end of the 1920s. [67][68][69][64][70]    

On July 26, 1931, at a convention in Columbus, Ohio, Rutherford introduced the new name – Jehovah's witnesses – based on Isaiah 43:10: "'You are my witnesses,' declares Jehovah, 'Yes, my servant whom I have chosen, So that you may know and have faith in me And understand that I am the same One. Before me no God was formed, And after me there has been none.'" (New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures 2013 Edition) —which was adopted by resolution. The name was chosen to distinguish his group of Bible Students from other independent groups that had severed ties with the Society, as well as symbolize the instigation of new outlooks and the promotion of fresh evangelizing methods. [10][11][12]   In 1932, Rutherford eliminated the system of locally elected elders and in 1938, introduced what he called a "theocratic" (literally, God-ruled) organizational system, under which appointments in congregations worldwide were made from the Brooklyn headquarters. [56]    

From 1932, it was taught that the "little flock" of 144,000 would not be the only people to survive Armageddon. Rutherford explained that in addition to the 144,000 "anointed" who would be resurrected—or transferred at death—to live in heaven to rule over earth with Christ, a separate class of members, the "great multitude," would live in a paradise restored on earth; from 1935, new converts to the movement were considered part of that class. [71][72]   By the mid-1930s, the timing of the beginning of Christ's presence (Greek: parousía), his enthronement as king, and the start of the "last days" were each moved to 1914. [73]    


Nathan H. Knorr, the third president of the Watch Tower Society 

As their interpretations of the Bible developed, Witness publications decreed that saluting national flags is a form of idolatry, which led to a new outbreak of mob violence and government opposition in the United States, Canada, Germany, and other countries. [74][75]    

Worldwide membership of Jehovah's Witnesses reached 113,624 in 5,323 congregations by the time of Rutherford's death in January 1942. [76][77]    

Continued development (1942–present)

See also: Development of Jehovah's Witnesses doctrine and Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses 

Nathan Knorr was appointed as third president of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society in 1942. Knorr commissioned a new translation of the Bible, the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures, the full version of which was released in 1961. He organized large international assemblies, instituted new training programs for members, and expanded missionary activity and branch offices throughout the world. [78]   Knorr's presidency was also marked by an increasing use of explicit instructions guiding Witnesses in their lifestyle and conduct, and a greater use of congregational judicial procedures to enforce a strict moral code. [79][80]    

From 1966, Witness publications and convention talks built anticipation of the possibility that Christ's thousand-year reign might begin in late 1975 [81][82]   or shortly thereafter. [83][84][85][86]   The number of baptisms increased significantly, from about 59,000 in 1966 to more than 297,000 in 1974. By 1975, the number of active members exceeded two million. Membership declined during the late 1970s after expectations for 1975 were proved wrong. [87][88][89][90]   Watch Tower Society literature did not state dogmatically that 1975 would definitely mark the end, [83]   but in 1980 the Watch Tower Society admitted its responsibility in building up hope regarding that year. [91][92]    

The offices of elder and ministerial servant were restored to Witness congregations in 1972, with appointments made from headquarters [93]   (and later, also by branch committees). It was announced that, starting in September 2014, appointments would be made by traveling overseers. In a major organizational overhaul in 1976, the power of the Watch Tower Society president was diminished, with authority for doctrinal and organizational decisions passed to the Governing Body. [94]   Since Knorr's death in 1977, the position of president has been occupied by Frederick Franz (1977–1992) and Milton Henschel (1992–2000), both members of the Governing Body, and since 2000 by others who are not Governing Body members. In 1995, Jehovah's Witnesses abandoned the idea that Armageddon must occur during the lives of the generation that was alive in 1914 and in 2010 changed their teaching on the "generation". [95][96][97][98]    

Main article: Organizational structure of Jehovah's Witnesses 

Jehovah's Witnesses are organized hierarchically, in what the leadership calls a "theocratic organization", reflecting their belief that it is God's "visible organization" on earth. [99][100] [101]   The organization is led by the Governing Body—an all-male group that varies in size, but since January 2018 has comprised eight members, [102]   all of whom profess to be of the "anointed" class with a hope of heavenly life—based in the Watch Tower Society's Warwick headquarters. [103][104]   There is no election for membership; new members are selected by the existing body. [105]   Until late 2012, the Governing Body described itself as the representative [106][107]   and "spokesman" for God's "faithful and discreet slave class" (approximately 10,000 self-professed "anointed" Jehovah's Witnesses). [108][109]   At the 2012 Annual Meeting of the Watch Tower Society, the "faithful and discreet slave" was defined as referring to the Governing Body only. [110]   The Governing Body directs several committees that are responsible for administrative functions, including publishing, assembly programs and evangelizing activities. [101]   It appoints all branch committee members and traveling overseers, after they have been recommended by local branches, with traveling overseers supervising circuits of congregations within their jurisdictions. Traveling overseers appoint local elders and ministerial servants, and while branch offices may appoint regional committees for matters such as Kingdom Hall construction or disaster relief. [111]   The leadership and supporting staff lives in properties owned by the organization worldwide referred to as "Bethel" where they operate as a religious community and administrative unit. [112]   Their living expenses and those of other full time volunteers are covered by the organization along with a basic monthly stipend. [113][114] [115]    

Each congregation has a body of appointed unpaid male elders and ministerial servants. Elders maintain general responsibility for congregational governance, setting meeting times, selecting speakers and conducting meetings, directing the public preaching work, and creating "judicial committees" to investigate and decide disciplinary action for cases involving sexual misconduct or doctrinal breaches. [116]   New elders are appointed by a traveling overseer after recommendation by the existing body of elders. Ministerial servants—appointed in a similar manner to elders—fulfill clerical and attendant duties, but may also teach and conduct meetings. [101]   Witnesses do not use elder as a title to signify a formal clergy-laity division, [117]   though elders may employ ecclesiastical privilege regarding confession of sins. [118][119]    

Baptism is a requirement for being considered a member of Jehovah's Witnesses. Jehovah's Witnesses do not practice infant baptism, [120]   and previous baptisms performed by other denominations are not considered valid. [121]   Individuals undergoing baptism must affirm publicly that dedication and baptism identify them "as one of Jehovah's Witnesses in association with God's spirit-directed organization," [121]   though Witness publications say baptism symbolizes personal dedication to God and not "to a man, work or organization." [122][123]   Their literature emphasizes the need for members to be obedient and loyal to Jehovah and to "his organization," [124][125] [note 2]   stating that individuals must remain part of it to receive God's favor and to survive Armageddon. [126][127] [128]    


The organization produces a significant amount of literature as part of its evangelism activities. [129]   The Watch Tower Society has produced over 220 million copies of the New World Translation in whole or in part in over 160 languages. [130]   The Watchtower and Awake! are the most widely distributed magazines in the world. [131]   Translation of Witness publications is done by over 2000 volunteers worldwide, producing literature in over 950 languages. [132]   Publications are also available online at the organization's official website.  


Much of their funding is provided by donations, primarily from members. There is no tithing or collection. [91]   In 2001 Newsday listed the Watch Tower Society as one of New York's forty richest corporations, with revenues exceeding $950 million. [129][133]   The organization reported for the same year that it "spent over $70.9 million in caring for special pioneers, missionaries, and traveling overseers in their field service assignments." [134][note 3]    


Main article: Jehovah's Witnesses beliefs 

Sources of doctrine

Jehovah's Witnesses believe their denomination is a restoration of first-century Christianity. [135]   Doctrines of Jehovah's Witnesses are established by the Governing Body, which assumes responsibility for interpreting and applying scripture. [7] [136][137]   The Governing Body does not issue any single, comprehensive "statement of faith", but prefers to express its doctrinal position in a variety of ways through publications published by the Watch Tower Society. [138]   Their publications teach that doctrinal changes and refinements result from a process of progressive revelation, in which God gradually reveals his will and purpose, [139][140] [141][142]   and that such enlightenment or "new light" [143]   results from the application of reason and study, [144]   the guidance of the holy spirit, and direction from Jesus Christ and angels. [145]   The Society also teaches that members of the Governing Body are helped by the holy spirit to discern "deep truths", which are then considered by the entire Governing Body before it makes doctrinal decisions. [146]   The group's leadership, while disclaiming divine inspiration and infallibility, [147]   is said to provide "divine guidance" [148]   through its teachings described as "based on God's Word thus ... not from men, but from Jehovah." [149][150]    

The entire Protestant canon of scripture is considered the inspired, inerrant word of God. [151]   Jehovah's Witnesses consider the Bible to be scientifically and historically accurate and reliable [152]   and interpret much of it literally, but accept parts of it as symbolic. [153]   They consider the Bible to be the final authority for all their beliefs, [154]   although sociologist Andrew Holden's ethnographic study of the group concluded that pronouncements of the Governing Body, through Watch Tower Society publications, carry almost as much weight as the Bible. [155]   Regular personal Bible reading is frequently recommended; Witnesses are discouraged from formulating doctrines and "private ideas" reached through Bible research independent of Watch Tower Society publications, and are cautioned against reading other religious literature. [156][157] [158]   Adherents are told to have "complete confidence" in the leadership, avoid skepticism about what is taught in the Watch Tower Society's literature, and "not advocate or insist on personal opinions or harbor private ideas when it comes to Bible understanding." [159][160] [161][162]   The organization makes no provision for members to criticize or contribute to official teachings [163]   and all Witnesses must abide by its doctrines and organizational requirements. [164]    

Jehovah and Jesus


The Tetragrammaton 

Jehovah's Witnesses emphasize the use of God's name, and they prefer the form Jehovah—a vocalization of God's name based on the Tetragrammaton. [165][166] [167]   They believe that Jehovah is the only true God, the creator of all things, and the "Universal Sovereign". They believe that all worship should be directed toward him, and that he is not part of a Trinity; [168]   consequently, the group places more emphasis on God than on Christ. [169][170]   They believe that the Holy Spirit is God's applied power or "active force", rather than a person. [171][172]    

Jehovah's Witnesses believe that Jesus is God's only direct creation, that everything else was created through Christ by means of God's power, and that the initial unassisted act of creation uniquely identifies Jesus as God's "only-begotten Son". [173]   Jesus served as a redeemer and a ransom sacrifice to pay for the sins of humanity. [174]   They believe Jesus died on a single upright post rather than the traditional cross. [175]   Biblical references to the Archangel Michael, Abaddon (Apollyon), and the Word are interpreted as names for Jesus in various roles. [176]   Jesus is considered to be the only intercessor and high priest between God and humanity, and appointed by God as the king and judge of his kingdom. [177]   His role as a mediator (referred to in 1 Timothy 2:5) is applied to the 'anointed' class, though the 'other sheep' are said to also benefit from the arrangement. [178]    


Jehovah's Witnesses believe that Satan was originally a perfect angel who developed feelings of self-importance and craved worship. Satan influenced Adam and Eve to disobey God, and humanity subsequently became participants in a challenge involving the competing claims of Jehovah and Satan to universal sovereignty. [179]   Other angels who sided with Satan became demons.

Jehovah's Witnesses teach that Satan and his demons were cast down to earth from heaven after October 1, 1914, [180]   at which point the end times began. They believe that Satan is the ruler of the current world order, [179]   that human society is influenced and misled by Satan and his demons, and that they are a cause of human suffering. They also believe that human governments are controlled by Satan, [181]   but that he does not directly control each human ruler. [182]    

Life after death

Main article: Jehovah's Witnesses and salvation 

Jehovah's Witnesses believe death is a state of non-existence with no consciousness. There is no Hell of fiery torment; Hades and Sheol are understood to refer to the condition of death, termed the common grave. [183]   Jehovah's Witnesses consider the soul to be a life or a living body that can die. [184]   Jehovah's Witnesses believe that humanity is in a sinful state, [184]   from which release is only possible by means of Jesus' shed blood as a ransom, or atonement, for the sins of humankind. [185]    

Witnesses believe that a "little flock" go to heaven, but that the hope for life after death for the majority of "other sheep" involves being resurrected by God to a cleansed earth after Armageddon. They interpret Revelation 14:1–5 to mean that the number of Christians going to heaven is limited to exactly 144,000, who will rule with Jesus as kings and priests over earth. [186]   They believe that baptism as one of Jehovah's Witnesses is vital for salvation [187]   and that only they meet scriptural requirements for surviving Armageddon, but that God is the final judge. [188][189] [190]   During Christ's millennial reign, most people who died prior to Armageddon will be resurrected with the prospect of living forever; they will be taught the proper way to worship God to prepare them for their final test at the end of the millennium. [191][192]    

God's Kingdom

Jehovah's Witnesses believe that God's Kingdom is a literal government in heaven, ruled by Jesus Christ and 144,000 "spirit-anointed" Christians drawn from the earth, which they associate with Jesus' reference to a "new covenant". [193][194]   The kingdom is viewed as the means by which God will accomplish his original purpose for the earth, transforming it into a paradise without sickness or death. [195]   It is said to have been the focal point of Jesus' ministry on earth. [196]   They believe the kingdom was established in heaven in 1914, [197]   and that Jehovah's Witnesses serve as representatives of the kingdom on earth. [198][199]    


Main article: Eschatology of Jehovah's Witnesses 

A central teaching of Jehovah's Witnesses is that the current world era, or "system of things", entered the "last days" in 1914 and faces imminent destruction through intervention by God and Jesus Christ, leading to deliverance for those who worship God acceptably. [200]   They consider all other present-day religions to be false, identifying them with "Babylon the Great", or the "harlot", of Revelation 17, [201]   and believe that they will soon be destroyed by the United Nations, which they believe is represented in scripture by the scarlet-colored wild beast of Revelation chapter 17. This development will mark the beginning of the "great tribulation". [202][203]   Satan will subsequently use world governments to attack Jehovah's Witnesses, an action that will prompt God to begin the war of Armageddon, during which all forms of government and all people not counted as Christ's "sheep" will be destroyed. After Armageddon, God will extend his heavenly kingdom to include earth, which will be transformed into a paradise similar to the Garden of Eden. [204]   Most of those who had died before God's intervention will gradually be resurrected during the thousand year "judgment day". This judgment will be based on their actions after resurrection rather than past deeds. At the end of the thousand years, Christ will hand all authority back to God. Then a final test will take place when Satan is released to mislead perfect mankind. Those who fail will be destroyed, along with Satan and his demons. The end result will be a fully tested, glorified human race on earth. [205][206]    

Jehovah's Witnesses believe that Jesus Christ began to rule in heaven as king of God's kingdom in October 1914, and that Satan was subsequently ousted from heaven to the earth, resulting in "woe" to humanity. They believe that Jesus rules invisibly, from heaven, perceived only as a series of "signs". They base this belief on a rendering of the Greek word parousia—usually translated as "coming" when referring to Christ—as "presence". They believe Jesus' presence includes an unknown period beginning with his inauguration as king in heaven in 1914, and ending when he comes to bring a final judgment against humans on earth. They thus depart from the mainstream Christian belief that the "second coming" of Matthew 24 refers to a single moment of arrival on earth to judge humans. [207][208]    


Main article: Jehovah's Witnesses practices 



Worship at a Kingdom Hall 

Meetings for worship and study are held at Kingdom Halls, which are typically functional in character, and do not contain religious symbols. [209]   Witnesses are assigned to a congregation in whose "territory" they usually reside and attend weekly services they refer to as "meetings" as scheduled by congregation elders. The meetings are largely devoted to study of Watch Tower Society literature and the Bible. The format of the meetings is established by the group's headquarters, and the subject matter for most meetings is the same worldwide. [209]   Congregations meet for two sessions each week comprising four distinct meetings that total about three-and-a-half hours, typically gathering mid-week (two meetings) and on the weekend (two meetings). Prior to 2009, congregations met three times each week; these meetings were condensed, with the intention that members dedicate an evening for "family worship". [210][211]   Gatherings are opened and closed with kingdom songs (hymns) and brief prayers. Twice each year, Witnesses from a number of congregations that form a "circuit" gather for a one-day assembly. Larger groups of congregations meet once a year for a three-day "regional convention", usually at rented stadiums or auditoriums. Their most important and solemn event is the commemoration of the "Lord's Evening Meal", or "Memorial of Christ's Death" on the date of the Jewish Passover. [212]    


See also: Jehovah's Witnesses publications 


Jehovah's Witnesses outside the British Museum, 2017

Jehovah's Witnesses are perhaps best known for their efforts to spread their beliefs, most notably by visiting people from house to house, [213][214] [215]   distributing literature published by the Watch Tower Society in 700 languages. [216]   The objective is to start a regular "Bible study" with any person who is not already a member, [217]   with the intention that the student be baptized as a member of the group; [218][219]   Witnesses are advised to consider discontinuing Bible studies with students who show no interest in becoming members. [220][221]   Witnesses are taught they are under a biblical command to engage in public preaching. [222][223]   They are instructed to devote as much time as possible to their ministry and are required to submit an individual monthly "Field Service Report". [224][225]   Baptized members who fail to report a month of preaching are termed "irregular" and may be counseled by elders; [226][227]   those who do not submit reports for six consecutive months are termed "inactive". [228]    

Ethics and morality

See also: Jehovah's Witnesses list of "serious sins" 

All sexual relations outside of marriage are grounds for expulsion if the individual is not deemed repentant; [229][230]   homosexual activity is considered a serious sin, and same-sex marriages are forbidden. Abortion is considered murder. [231]   Suicide is considered to be "self-murder" and a sin against God. [232]   Modesty in dress and grooming is frequently emphasized. Gambling, drunkenness, illegal drugs, and tobacco use are forbidden. [233]   Drinking of alcoholic beverages is permitted in moderation. [231]    

The family structure is patriarchal. The husband is considered to have authority on family decisions, but is encouraged to solicit his wife's thoughts and feelings, as well as those of his children. Marriages are required to be monogamous and legally registered. [234][235]   Marrying a non-believer, or endorsing such a union, is strongly discouraged and carries religious sanctions. [236][237]    

Divorce is discouraged, and remarriage is forbidden unless a divorce is obtained on the grounds of adultery, which they refer to as "a scriptural divorce". [238]   If a divorce is obtained for any other reason, remarriage is considered adulterous unless the prior spouse has died or is since considered to have committed sexual immorality. [239]   Extreme physical abuse, willful non-support of one's family, and what the denomination terms "absolute endangerment of spirituality" are considered grounds for legal separation. [240][241]    

Disciplinary action

Main article: Jehovah's Witnesses and congregational discipline 

Formal discipline is administered by congregation elders. When a baptized member is accused of committing a serious sin—usually cases of sexual misconduct [116][242]   or charges of apostasy for disputing Jehovah's Witness doctrines [243][244]   —a judicial committee is formed to determine guilt, provide help and possibly administer discipline. Disfellowshipping, a form of shunning, is the strongest form of discipline, administered to an offender deemed unrepentant. [245]   Contact with disfellowshipped individuals is limited to direct family members living in the same home, and with congregation elders who may invite disfellowshipped persons to apply for reinstatement; [246]   formal business dealings may continue if contractually or financially obliged. [247]   Witnesses are taught that avoiding social and spiritual interaction with disfellowshipped individuals keeps the congregation free from immoral influence and that "losing precious fellowship with loved ones may help [the shunned individual] to come 'to his senses,' see the seriousness of his wrong, and take steps to return to Jehovah." [248]   The practice of shunning may also serve to deter other members from dissident behavior. [249]   Members who disassociate (formally resign) are described in Watch Tower Society literature as wicked and are also shunned. [250][251] [252]   Expelled individuals may eventually be reinstated to the congregation if deemed repentant by elders in the congregation in which the disfellowshipping was enforced. [21]   Reproof is a lesser form of discipline given formally by a judicial committee to a baptized Witness who is considered repentant of serious sin; the reproved person temporarily loses conspicuous privileges of service, but suffers no restriction of social or spiritual fellowship. [253]   Marking, a curtailing of social but not spiritual fellowship, is practiced if a baptized member persists in a course of action regarded as a violation of Bible principles but not a serious sin. [note 4]    


Main article: Jehovah's Witnesses and governments 

Jehovah's Witnesses believe that the Bible condemns the mixing of religions, on the basis that there can only be one truth from God, and therefore reject interfaith and ecumenical movements. [254][255] [256]   They believe that only Jehovah's Witnesses represent true Christianity, and that other religions fail to meet all the requirements set by God and will soon be destroyed. [257]   Jehovah's Witnesses are taught that it is vital to remain "separate from the world." The Witnesses' literature defines the "world" as "the mass of mankind apart from Jehovah's approved servants" and teach that it is morally contaminated and ruled by Satan. [258][259] [260]   Witnesses are taught that association with "worldly" people presents a "danger" to their faith, [261]   and are instructed to minimize social contact with non-members to better maintain their own standards of morality. [262][263] [264][265]   Attending university is discouraged and trade schools are suggested as an alternative. [266][267]    

Jehovah's Witnesses believe their highest allegiance belongs to God's kingdom, which is viewed as an actual government in heaven, with Christ as king. They remain politically neutral, do not seek public office, and are discouraged from voting, though individual members may participate in uncontroversial community improvement issues. [268][269]   Although they do not take part in politics, they respect the authority of the governments under which they live. [270]   They do not celebrate religious holidays such as Christmas and Easter, nor do they observe birthdays, national holidays, or other celebrations they consider to honor people other than Jesus. They feel that these and many other customs have pagan origins or reflect a nationalistic or political spirit. Their position is that these traditional holidays reflect Satan's control over the world. [271][272] [273]   Witnesses are told that spontaneous giving at other times can help their children to not feel deprived of birthdays or other celebrations. [274]    

They do not work in industries associated with the military, do not serve in the armed services, [275]   and refuse national military service, which in some countries may result in their arrest and imprisonment. [276]   They do not salute or pledge allegiance to flags or sing national anthems or patriotic songs. [277]   Jehovah's Witnesses see themselves as a worldwide brotherhood that transcends national boundaries and ethnic loyalties. [278]   Sociologist Ronald Lawson has suggested the group's intellectual and organizational isolation, coupled with the intense indoctrination of adherents, rigid internal discipline and considerable persecution, has contributed to the consistency of its sense of urgency in its apocalyptic message. [279]    

Rejection of blood transfusions

Main article: Jehovah's Witnesses and blood transfusions 

Jehovah's Witnesses refuse blood transfusions, which they consider a violation of God's law based on their interpretation of Acts 15:28, 29 and other scriptures. [280][281] [282]   Since 1961 the willing acceptance of a blood transfusion by an unrepentant member has been grounds for expulsion from the group. [283][284]   Members are directed to refuse blood transfusions, even in "a life-or-death situation". [285][286] [287]   Jehovah's Witnesses accept non-blood alternatives and other medical procedures in lieu of blood transfusions, and their literature provides information about non-blood medical procedures. [288]    

Though Jehovah's Witnesses do not accept blood transfusions of whole blood, they may accept some blood plasma fractions at their own discretion. [289][290] [291]   The Watch Tower Society provides pre-formatted durable power of attorney documents prohibiting major blood components, in which members can specify which allowable fractions and treatments they will personally accept. [292][293]   Jehovah's Witnesses have established Hospital Liaison Committees as a cooperative arrangement between individual Jehovah's Witnesses and medical professionals and hospitals. [294][295]    


Main article: Demographics of Jehovah's Witnesses 


Jehovah's Witnesses have an active presence in most countries, but do not form a large part of the population of any country.

For 2017, Jehovah's Witnesses reported more than 8.45 million publishers—the term they use for members actively involved in preaching—in 120,053 congregations. [3]   For the same year, they reported over 2 billion hours spent in preaching activity, and conducted Bible studies with more than 10.1 million individuals (including those conducted by Witness parents with their children [296][297]   ). [3]   Jehovah's Witnesses estimate their worldwide annual growth since 2016 to be 1.4%. [3]    

The official published membership statistics, such as those mentioned above, include only those who submit reports for their personal ministry; [298]   official statistics do not include inactive and disfellowshipped individuals or others who might attend their meetings. As a result, only about half of those who self-identified as Jehovah's Witnesses in independent demographic studies are considered active by the faith itself. [299][300]   The 2008 US Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life survey found a low retention rate among members of the denomination: about 37% of people raised in the group continued to identify themselves as Jehovah's Witnesses. [301][302]   The study also found that 65% of adult Jehovah's Witnesses in the US are converts. [303]    

Sociological analysis

See also: Sociological classifications of religious movements 

Sociologist James A. Beckford, in his 1975 study of Jehovah's Witnesses, classified the group's organizational structure as Totalizing, characterized by an assertive leadership, specific and narrow objectives, control over competing demands on members' time and energy, and control over the quality of new members. Other characteristics of the classification include likelihood of friction with secular authorities, reluctance to co-operate with other religious organizations, a high rate of membership turnover, a low rate of doctrinal change, and strict uniformity of beliefs among members. [304]   Beckford identified the group's chief characteristics as historicism (identifying historical events as relating to the outworking of God's purpose), absolutism (conviction that Jehovah's Witness leaders dispense absolute truth), activism (capacity to motivate members to perform missionary tasks), rationalism (conviction that Witness doctrines have a rational basis devoid of mystery), authoritarianism (rigid presentation of regulations without the opportunity for criticism) and world indifference (rejection of certain secular requirements and medical treatments). [305]    

Sociologist Bryan R. Wilson, in his consideration of five religious groups including Jehovah's Witnesses, noted that each of the denominations: [306]    

  1. "exists in a state of tension with the wider society;"   
  2. "imposes tests of merit on would-be members;"   
  3. "exercises stern discipline, regulating the declared beliefs and the life habits of members and prescribing and operating sanctions for those who deviate, including the possibility of expulsion;"   
  4. "demands sustained and total commitment from its members, and the subordination, and perhaps even the exclusion of all other interests."   

A sociological comparative study by the Pew Research Center found that Jehovah's Witnesses in the United States ranked highest in statistics for getting no further than high school graduation, belief in God, importance of religion in one's life, frequency of religious attendance, frequency of prayers, frequency of Bible reading outside of religious services, belief their prayers are answered, belief that their religion can only be interpreted one way, belief that theirs is the only one true faith leading to eternal life, opposition to abortion, and opposition to homosexuality. In the study, Jehovah's Witnesses ranked lowest in statistics for having an interest in politics. [307][308]   It was also among the most racially and ethnically diverse religious groups in the US. [303]    


Controversy surrounding various beliefs, doctrines and practices of Jehovah's Witnesses has led to opposition from governments, communities, and religious groups. Religious commentator Ken Jubber wrote that "Viewed globally, this persecution has been so persistent and of such intensity that it would not be inaccurate to regard Jehovah's Witnesses as the most persecuted group of Christians of the twentieth century." [309]    


Main article: Persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses 

See also: Persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses in Nazi Germany 


Jehovah's Witness prisoners were identified by purple triangle badges in Nazi concentration camps.

Political and religious animosity against Jehovah's Witnesses has at times led to mob action and government oppression in various countries. Their stance regarding political neutrality and their refusal to serve in the military has led to imprisonment of members who refused conscription during World War II and at other times where national service has been compulsory. Their religious activities are currently banned or restricted in some countries, including China, Vietnam and some Islamic states. [310][311]    

  • In 1933, there were approximately 20,000 Jehovah's Witnesses in Nazi Germany, [312]   of whom about 10,000 were imprisoned. Of those, 2000 were sent to Nazi concentration camps, where they were identified by purple triangles; as many as 1200 died, including 250 who were executed. [313][314][315][316]      
  • In Canada during World War II, Jehovah's Witnesses were interned in camps [317]   along with political dissidents and people of Chinese and Japanese descent. [318]   Jehovah's Witnesses faced discrimination in Quebec until the Quiet Revolution, including bans on distributing literature or holding meetings. [319][320]      
  • In 1951, about 9,300 Jehovah's Witnesses in the Soviet Union were deported to Siberia as part of Operation North in April 1951. [321]      
  • In April 2017, the Supreme Court of Russia labeled Jehovah's Witnesses an extremist organization, banned its activities in Russia and issued an order to confiscate the organization's assets. [322]      

Authors including William Whalen, Shawn Francis Peters and former Witnesses Barbara Grizzuti Harrison, Alan Rogerson and William Schnell have claimed the arrests and mob violence in the United States in the 1930s and 1940s were the consequence of what appeared to be a deliberate course of provocation of authorities and other religious groups by Jehovah's Witnesses. Whalen, Harrison and Schnell have suggested Rutherford invited and cultivated opposition for publicity purposes in a bid to attract dispossessed members of society, and to convince members that persecution from the outside world was evidence of the truth of their struggle to serve God. [323][324] [325][326][327]   Watch Tower Society literature of the period directed that Witnesses should "never seek a controversy" nor resist arrest, but also advised members not to co-operate with police officers or courts that ordered them to stop preaching, and to prefer jail rather than pay fines. [328]    

Legal challenges

Main article: Supreme Court cases involving Jehovah's Witnesses by country 

Several cases involving Jehovah's Witnesses have been heard by Supreme Courts throughout the world. [329]   The cases generally relate to their right to practice their religion, displays of patriotism and military service, and blood transfusions. [330]    

In the United States, legal challenges by Jehovah's Witnesses prompted a series of state and federal court rulings that reinforced judicial protections for civil liberties. [331]   Among the rights strengthened by Witness court victories in the United States are the protection of religious conduct from federal and state interference, the right to abstain from patriotic rituals and military service, the right of patients to refuse medical treatment, and the right to engage in public discourse. [332]   Similar cases in their favor have been heard in Canada. [333]    

Criticism and controversy

Main article: Criticism of Jehovah's Witnesses 

Jehovah's Witnesses have received criticism from mainstream Christianity, members of the medical community, former members and commentators regarding their beliefs and practices. The movement has been accused of doctrinal inconsistency and reversals, failed predictions, mistranslation of the Bible, harsh treatment of former members and autocratic and coercive leadership. Criticism has also focused on their rejection of blood transfusions, particularly in life-threatening medical situations, and failing to report cases of sexual abuse to the authorities. Many of the claims are denied by Jehovah's Witnesses and some have also been disputed by courts and religious scholars.

Free speech and thought

Doctrines of Jehovah's Witnesses are established by the Governing Body. [334][335]   The denomination does not tolerate dissent over doctrines and practices; [150][336] [337][338]   members who openly disagree with the group's teachings are expelled and shunned. [244]   Witness publications strongly discourage followers from questioning doctrine and counsel received from the Governing Body, reasoning that it is to be trusted as part of "God's organization". [338][339] [340][341]   It also warns members to "avoid independent thinking", claiming such thinking "was introduced by Satan the Devil" [342][343]   and would "cause division". [344]   Those who openly disagree with official teachings are condemned as "apostates" who are "mentally diseased". [249][345] [346]    

Former members Heather and Gary Botting compare the cultural paradigms of the denomination to George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-four, [347]   and Alan Rogerson describes the group's leadership as totalitarian. [348]   Other critics charge that by disparaging individual decision-making, the group's leaders cultivate a system of unquestioning obedience [156][349]   in which Witnesses abrogate all responsibility and rights over their personal lives. [350][351]   Critics also accuse the group's leaders of exercising "intellectual dominance" over Witnesses, [352]   controlling information [244][353] [354]   and creating "mental isolation", which former Governing Body member Raymond Franz argued were all elements of mind control. [355]    

Jehovah's Witness publications state that consensus of faith aids unity, and deny that unity restricts individuality or imagination. [356]   Historian James Irvin Lichti has rejected the description of the denomination as "totalitarian". [357]    

Sociologist Rodney Stark states that Jehovah's Witness leaders are "not always very democratic" and that members "are expected to conform to rather strict standards," but adds that "enforcement tends to be very informal, sustained by the close bonds of friendship within the group", and that Jehovah's Witnesses see themselves as "part of the power structure rather than subject to it." [89]   Sociologist Andrew Holden states that most members who join millenarian movements such as Jehovah's Witnesses have made an informed choice. [358]   However, he also states that defectors "are seldom allowed a dignified exit", [249]   and describes the administration as autocratic. [334]    

New World Translation

Main article: New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures 

Various Bible scholars, including Bruce M. Metzger, former Professor and Bible editor and translator at Princeton Theological Seminary, have said that the New World Translation's renderings of certain texts are inaccurate and biased in favor of Witness practices and doctrines. [359][360] [361][362][363]   Baptist Old Testament scholar and Bible editor Harold H. Rowley, in a November 1953 review, criticized the first volume as "a shining example of how the Bible should not be translated," adding in a subsequent review that "The second volume shows the same faults as the first." [364][365]   Critics of the group from mainstream Christianity such as Edmund C. Gruss, [366]   Ray C. Stedman, [367]   Walter Martin, Norman Klann [368]   and Anthony Hoekema [369]   claim that the New World Translation lacks scholarship or that it reflects scholastic dishonesty.  

Jason BeDuhn, [370][371]   Professor of Religious Studies at the Northern Arizona University, in a New Testament study wrote: "The NW [New World Translation] emerges as the most accurate of the translations compared." BeDuhn stated that although the general public and "several important biblical scholars" assume that the differences in the New World Translation are the result of religious bias on the part of its translators, "most of the differences are due to the greater accuracy of the NW as a literal, conservative translation of the original expressions of the New Testament writers." However, he added that the insertion of the name Jehovah in the New Testament "violate[s] accuracy in favor of denominationally preferred expressions for God". [370]   BeDuhn's book has been strongly criticized by other scholars, such as Thomas A Howe [372]   and Trevor Allin. [373]    

Unfulfilled predictions

Main article: Watch Tower Society unfulfilled predictions 

Watch Tower Society publications have claimed that God has used Jehovah's Witnesses (and formerly, the International Bible Students) to declare his will [374][375]   and has provided advance knowledge about Armageddon and the establishment of God's kingdom. [376][377] [378]   Some publications also claimed that God has used Jehovah's Witnesses and the International Bible Students as a modern-day prophet. [note 5]   George D. Chryssides stated, "while prediction may be part of a biblical prophet's role, the root meaning of prophecy is that of proclaiming God's word." He went on to say that, "Jehovah's Witnesses ... are the recipients of prophecy, who regard themselves as invested with the interpretation of biblical writings." [379][note 6]   With these interpretations, Jehovah's Witnesses' publications have made various predictions about world events they believe were prophesied in the Bible. [380][381]   Failed predictions have led to the alteration or abandonment of some doctrines. [382][383]   Some failed predictions had been presented as "beyond doubt" or "approved by God". [384]    

The Watch Tower Society rejects accusations that it is a false prophet, [385]   stating that its teachings are not inspired or infallible, [386][387] [388]   and that it has not claimed its predictions were "the words of Jehovah." [385]   Chryssides has suggested that with the exception of statements about 1914, 1925 and 1975, the changing views and dates of the Jehovah's Witnesses are largely attributable to changed understandings of biblical chronology rather than to failed predictions. [81]   Chryssides further states, "it is therefore simplistic and naïve to view the Witnesses as a group that continues to set a single end-date that fails and then devise a new one, as many counter-cultists do." [389]   However, sociologist Andrew Holden states that since the foundation of the movement around 140 years ago, "Witnesses have maintained that we are living on the precipice of the end of time." [390]    

Handling of sexual abuse cases

Main article: Jehovah's Witnesses' handling of child sex abuse 

Jehovah's Witnesses have been accused of having policies and culture that help to conceal cases of sexual abuse within the organization. [391]   The group has been criticized for its "two witness rule" for church discipline, based on its application of scriptures at Deuteronomy 19:15 and Matthew 18:15–17, which requires sexual abuse to be substantiated by secondary evidence if the accused person denies any wrongdoing. [392][393] [394]   In cases where corroboration is lacking, the Watch Tower Society's instruction is that "the elders will leave the matter in Jehovah's hands". [395]   A former member of the headquarters staff, Barbara Anderson, says the policy effectively requires that there be another witness to an act of molestation, "which is an impossibility". Anderson says the policies "protect pedophiles rather than protect the children." [396]   Jehovah's Witnesses maintain that they have a strong policy to protect children, adding that the best way to protect children is by educating parents; they also state that they do not sponsor activities that separate children from parents. [392][397] [398]    

The group's failure to report abuse allegations to authorities has also been criticized. [399]   The Watch Tower Society's policy is that elders inform authorities when required by law to do so, but otherwise leave that action up to the victim and his or her family. [392][400] [401]   The Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse found that of 1006 alleged perpetrators of child sexual abuse identified by the Jehovah's Witnesses within their organization since 1950, "not one was reported by the church to secular authorities." [402]   The Royal Commission also found that the Watch Tower Society legal department routinely provided incorrect information to elders based on an incorrect understanding about what constitutes a legal obligation to report crimes in Australia. [403][404]   William Bowen, a former Jehovah's Witness elder who established the Silentlambs organization to assist sex abuse victims within the denomination, has claimed Witness leaders discourage followers from reporting incidents of sexual misconduct to authorities, and other critics claim the organization is reluctant to alert authorities in order to protect its "crime-free" reputation. [391][405]   In court cases in the United Kingdom and the United States the Watch Tower Society has been found to have been negligent in its failure to protect children from known sex offenders within the congregation, [406][407] [408]   and the Society has settled other child abuse lawsuits out of court, reportedly paying as much as $780,000 to one plaintiff without admitting wrongdoing. [396]    

In 2017, the Charity Commission for England and Wales began an inquiry into Jehovah's Witnesses' handling of allegations of child sexual abuse in the United Kingdom. [409][410]     

Organizational Structure of Jehovah's Witnesses


1.         Jump up ^   Based on Isaiah 43:10-12  

2.         Jump up ^   Raymond Franz (In Search of Christian Freedom, 2007, p.449) cites various Watch Tower Society publications that stress loyalty and obedience to the organization, including:
"Following Faithful Shepherds with Life in View". The Watchtower. October 1, 1967. p. 591. Make haste to identify the visible theocratic organization of God that represents his king, Jesus Christ. It is essential for life. Doing so, be complete in accepting its every aspect.

"Jehovah's Word Is Alive - Highlights From Book Five of Psalms". The Watchtower. September 1, 2006. p. 15. Have we formed a loyal attachment to the organization that Jehovah is using today?
"Your Reminders Are What I Am Fond Of". The Watchtower. June 15, 2006. p. 26. We too should remain faithful to Jehovah and to his organization regardless of injustices we suffer and regardless of what others do.
"Are You Prepared for Survival?". The Watchtower. May 15, 2006. p. 22. Just as Noah and his God-fearing family were preserved in the ark, survival of individuals today depends on their faith and their loyal association with the earthly part of Jehovah's universal organization.
Worship The Only True God. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. 2002. p. 134. Jehovah is guiding us today by means of his visible organization under Christ. Our attitude toward this arrangement demonstrates how we feel about the issue of sovereignty ... By being loyal to Jehovah's organization, we show that Jehovah is our God and that we are united in worship of him.  

3.         Jump up ^   2013 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses. p. 178. During the 2012 service year, Jehovah's Witnesses spent over $184 million in caring for special pioneers, missionaries, and traveling overseers in their field service assignments.  

4.         Jump up ^   A common example given is a baptized Witness who dates a non-Witness; see "Questions From Readers". The Watchtower. July 15, 1999. p. 30.  

5.         Jump up ^   Raymond Franz cites numerous examples. In Crisis of Conscience, 2002, pg. 173, he quotes from "They Shall Know That a Prophet Was Among Them". The Watchtower. April 1, 1972. pp. 197–200. which states that God had raised Jehovah's Witnesses as a prophet "to warn (people) of dangers and declare things to come". He also cites "Identifying the Right Kind of Messenger". The Watchtower. May 1, 1997. p. 8. which identifies the Witnesses as his "true messengers ... by making the messages he delivers through them come true", in contrast to "false messengers", whose predictions fail. In In Search of Christian Freedom, 2007, he quotes Commissioned to Speak in the Divine Name. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. 1971. pp. 70, 292. which describes Witnesses as the modern Ezekiel class, "a genuine prophet within our generation". The Watch Tower book noted: "Concerning the message faithfully delivered by the Ezekiel class, Jehovah positively states that it 'must come true' ... those who wait undecided until it does 'come true' will also have to know that a prophet himself had proved to be in the midst of them." He also cites "Execution of the Great Harlot Nears". The Watchtower. October 15, 1980. p. 17. which claims God gives the Witnesses "special knowledge that others do not have ... advance knowledge about this system's end".

6.         Jump up ^   In Jehovah's Witnesses Continuity and Change Chryssides states, after discussing the April 1, 1972 Watchtower article, that, "It would be tedious to comment on each passage in which Watch Tower literature explains the Jehovah's Witnesses' position on prophecy. Some of it may lack the precision that its detractors appear to demand, but the Society's position is quite clear. Jehovah's Witnesses do not claim to have any new revelation or people who are designated as prophets. As cessationists, they identify the ability to prophesy as a gift that died out with the first generation of Christians, but prophetic utterances remain in the Bible, which serves as the key source of authority. ... since the Bible is held to contain predictive prophecy, Jehovah's Witnesses claim to see into the future through the Society's interpretation of scripture." pg 225.


1.       Jump up ^  Cobb v. Brede (California Superior Court, San Mateo County February 22, 2012) ("I am general counsel for the National Organization of Jehovah's Witnesses out of Brooklyn, New York. ... We are a hierarchical religion structured just like the Catholic Church").  

2.       ^ Jump up to: a b Stanley I. Kutler, ed. (2003). "Jehovah's Witnesses". Dictionary of American History (3rd ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 978-0-684-80533-7.  

3.       ^ Jump up to: a b c d e "2017 Grand Totals". Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. 2018.  

4.      Jump up ^  Sources for descriptors:  

§   Millenarian  : Beckford, James A. (1975). The Trumpet of Prophecy: A Sociological Study of Jehovah's Witnesses. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. pp. 118–119, 151, 200–201. ISBN 0-631-16310-7. 

§   Restorationist  : Stark, Rodney; Iannaccone, Laurence R. (1997). "Why the Jehovah's Witnesses Grow so Rapidly: A Theoretical Application"  (PDF) . Journal of Contemporary Religion. 12 (2): 133–157. doi:10.1080/13537909708580796. Retrieved 27 December 2017.   

§   Christian  : "Who is a Christian?". Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. Retrieved 27 December 2017. "Religious Landscape Study". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. Pew Research Center. 11 May 2015. Retrieved 27 December 2017.World Almanac and Book of Facts. New York, NY: Infobase Learning. 2011. pp. 704–705. ISBN 978-1-60057-133-6. 

§   Denomination  : "Jehovah's Witnesses at a glance". BBC. 29 September 2009. Retrieved 27 December 2017."Jehovah's Witness". The American Heritage Dictionary. Retrieved 27 December 2017.   "Imprisoned for Their Faith: Jehovah's Witnesses in Auschwitz". Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum. 5 February 2004. Retrieved 27 December 2017. 

5.       Jump up ^  Beckford, James A. (1975). The Trumpet of Prophecy: A Sociological Study of Jehovah's Witnesses. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. p. 221. ISBN 0-631-16310-7. Doctrine has always emanated from the Society's elite in Brooklyn and has never emerged from discussion among, or suggestion from, rank-and-file Witnesses.  

6.       Jump up ^  Paul Lagasse, ed. (2000). "Jehovah's Witnesses". The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-7876-5015-5. The Witnesses base their teaching on the Bible  

7.       ^ Jump up to: a b c Penton 1997, pp. 58, 61–62  

8.       Jump up ^  "Jehovah's Witness". Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 2007. ISBN 978-1-59339-293-2.  

9.       Jump up ^  Michael Hill, ed. (1972). "The Embryonic State of a Religious Sect's Development: The Jehovah's Witnesses". Sociological Yearbook of Religion in Britain (5): 11–12. Joseph Franklin Rutherford succeeded to Russell's position as President of Zion's Watch Tower Tract Society, but only at the expense of antagonizing a large proportion of the Watch Towers subscribers. Nevertheless, he persisted in moulding the Society to suit his own programme of activist evangelism under systematic central control, and he succeeded in creating the administrative structure of the present-day sect of Jehovah's Witnesses.  

10.    ^ Jump up to: a b Rogerson, Alan (1969). Millions Now Living Will Never Die: A Study of Jehovah's Witnesses. London: Constable. p. 55. In 1931, came an important milestone in the history of the organization. For many years Rutherford's followers had been called a variety of names: 'International Bible Students', 'Russellites', or 'Millennial Dawners'. In order to distinguish clearly his followers from the other groups who had separated in 1918 Rutherford proposed that they adopt an entirely new name—Jehovah's witnesses.  

11.    ^ Jump up to: a b James A. Beckford, The Trumpet of Prophecy, 1975, page 30, "The new title symbolized a break with the legacy of Russell's traditions, the instigation of new outlooks and the promotion of fresh methods of administering evangelism."  

12.    ^ Jump up to: a b "A New Name". The Watch Tower. October 1, 1931. p. 291. Since the death of Charles T. Russell there have arisen numerous companies formed out of those who once walked with him, each of these companies claiming to teach the truth, and each calling themselves by some name, such as "Followers of Pastor Russell", "those who stand by the truth as expounded by Pastor Russell," "Associated Bible Students," and some by the names of their local leaders. All of this tends to confusion and hinders those of good will who are not better informed from obtaining a knowledge of the truth.  

13.    Jump up ^  Leo P. Chall (1978). "Sociological Abstracts". Sociology of Religion. 26 (1–3): 193. Rutherford, through the Watch Tower Society, succeeded in changing all aspects of the sect from 1919 to 1932 and created Jehovah's Witnesses—a charismatic offshoot of the Bible student community.  

14.    Jump up ^  Franz, Raymond (2007). In Search of Christian Freedom. Commentary Press. pp. 274–5. ISBN 0-914675-16-8.  

15.    Jump up ^  Edwards, Linda (2001). A Brief Guide to Beliefs. Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press. p. 438. ISBN 0-664-22259-5. The Jehovah's Witnesses' interpretation of Christianity and their rejection of orthodoxy influenced them to produce their own translation of the Bible, The New World Translation.  

16.    Jump up ^  "When Was Ancient Jerusalem Destroyed?—Part One". The Watchtower. October 1, 2011. p. 26. Jehovah's Witnesses produce a reliable Bible translation known as the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures. However, if you are not one of Jehovah's Witnesses, you may prefer to use other translations when considering Bible subjects. This article quotes from a number of widely accepted Bible translations.  

17.    Jump up ^  Chryssides, George D. Historical Dictionary of Jehovah's Witnesses, pg. 100 "Although it is the preferred translation by the Witnesses, they remain willing to use other translations in house-to-house ministry and in countries where a NWT has not yet been published".  

18.    Jump up ^  Singelenberg, Richard (1989). "It Separated the Wheat From the Chaff: The 1975 Prophecy and its Impact Among Dutch Jehovah's Witnesses". Sociological Analysis. 50 (Spring 1989): 23–40, footnote 8. doi:10.2307/3710916. 'The Truth' is Witnesses' jargon, meaning the Society's belief system.  

19.    Jump up ^  Penton, M.J. (1997). Apocalypse Delayed: The Story of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. pp. 280–283. ISBN 0-8020-7973-3. Most Witnesses tend to think of society outside their own community as decadent and corrupt ... This in turn means to Jehovah's Witnesses that they must keep themselves apart from Satan's "doomed system of things." Thus most tend to socialize largely, although not totally, within the Witness community.  

20.    Jump up ^  Chryssides, George D. (1999). Exploring New Religions. London: Continuum. p. 5. ISBN 0-8264-5959-5. The Jehovah's Witnesses are well known for their practice of 'disfellowshipping' wayward members.  

21.    ^ Jump up to: a b Shepherd the Flock of God. Watch Tower Society. p. 119. The committee should be careful to allow sufficient time, perhaps many months, a year, or even longer, for the disfellowshipped person to prove that his profession of repentance is genuine.  

22.    Jump up ^  Gary Botting, Fundamental Freedoms and Jehovah's Witnesses (Calgary: University of Calgary Press, 1993), pg 1–13.  

23.    Jump up ^  Rogerson, Alan (1969). Millions Now Living Will Never Die: A Study of Jehovah's Witnesses. Constable & Co, London. p. 6. ISBN 978-0094559400.  

24.    ^ Jump up to: a b Beckford 1975, p. 2  

25.    Jump up ^  Crompton, Robert (1996). Counting the Days to Armageddon. Cambridge: James Clarke & Co. pp. 37–39. ISBN 0-227-67939-3.  

26.    Jump up ^  "Gentile Times: When Do They End?". Bible Examiner. October 1876. pp. 27–28. The seven times will end in A.D. 1914; when Jerusalem shall be delivered forever ... when Gentile Governments shall have been dashed to pieces; when God shall have poured out of his fury upon the nations and they acknowledge him King of Kings and Lord of Lords.  

27.    Jump up ^  Studies in the Scriptures. IV The Battle of Armageddon. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. 1897. p. xii.  

28.    Jump up ^  Russell, Charles (1889). The Time is at Hand. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. p. 101.  

29.    Jump up ^  Botting, Heather; Botting, Gary (1884). The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. p. 36.  

30.    ^ Jump up to: a b Holden, 2002 & Portrait, p. 18  

31.    Jump up ^  "Prospectus". Zion's Watch Tower. July 1, 1879. p. 1. This is the first number of the first volume of "Zion's Watch Tower," and it may not be amiss to state the object of its publication. That we are living "in the last days"—"the day of the Lord"—"the end" of the Gospel age, and consequently, in the dawn of a "new" age.  

32.    Jump up ^  "Part 1 — United States of America". 1975 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. 1975. p. 38. As congregations continued to form during Russell's ministry, they each remained self-administrative, functioning under the congregationalist style of church governance.  

33.    Jump up ^  "The Ecclesia". Zion's Watch Tower. September 1884. pp. 7–8.  

34.    Jump up ^  Russell, Charles (1904). Studies in the Scriptures. VI The New Creation. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. pp. 195–272.  

35.    Jump up ^  Russell, Charles (April 25, 1894). "A Conspiracy Exposed". Zion's Watch Tower. pp. 55–60. This is a business association merely ... it has no creed or confession ... it is merely a business convenience in disseminating the truth.  

36.    Jump up ^  Historical Dictionary of Jehovah's Witnesses by George D. Chryssides, Scarecrow Press, 2008, page xxxiv, "Russell wanted to consolidate the movement he had started. ...In 1880, Bible House, a four-story building in Allegheny, was completed, with printing facilities and meeting accommodation, and it became the organization's headquarters. The next stage of institutionalization was legal incorporation. In 1884, Russell formed the Zion's Watch Tower Tract Society, which was incorporated in Pennsylvania... Russell was concerned that his supporters should feel part of a unified movement."  

37.    Jump up ^  Religion in the Twentieth Century by Vergilius Ture Anselm Ferm, Philosophical Library, 1948, page 383, "As the [unincorporated Watch Tower] Society expanded, it became necessary to incorporate it and build a more definite organization. In 1884, a charter was granted recognizing the Society as a religious, non-profit corporation."  

38.    Jump up ^  Holden, 2002 & Portrait, p. 19  

39.    Jump up ^  A Chronology and Glossary of Propaganda in the United States Greenwood Press: 1996. pg. 35: "Russell is naturally media literate, and the amount of literature he circulates proves staggering. Books, booklets, and tracts are distributed by the hundreds of millions. This is supplemented by well-publicized speaking tours and a masterful press relations effort, which gives him widespread access to general audiences."  

40.    Jump up ^  Penton 1997, p. 26–29  

41.    Jump up ^  The Overland Monthly, January 1910 pg. 130  

42.    Jump up ^  W.T. Ellis, The Continent, McCormick Publishing Company, vol. 43, no. 40, October 3, 1912 pg. 1354  

43.    Jump up ^  Religious Diversity and American Religious History by Walter H. Conser, Sumner B. Twiss, University of Georgia Press, 1997, page 136, "The Jehovah's Witnesses...has maintained a very different attitude toward history. Established initially in the 1870s by Charles Taze Russell under the title International Bible Students Association, this organization has proclaimed..."  

44.    Jump up ^  The New Schaff–Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, 1910, vol 7, pg 374  

45.    Jump up ^  Penton 1997, p. 26  

46.    Jump up ^  Rogerson, Alan (1969). Millions Now Living Will Never Die: A Study of Jehovah's Witnesses. Constable & Co, London. p. 31. ISBN 978-0094559400.  

47.    Jump up ^  Penton 1997, p. 53  

48.    Jump up ^  A.N. Pierson et al, Light After Darkness, 1917, page 4.  

49.    Jump up ^  Crompton, Robert (1996). Counting the Days to Armageddon. Cambridge: James Clarke & Co. p. 101. ISBN 0-227-67939-3.  

50.    Jump up ^  The Bible Students Monthly, 9 (9), pp. 1, 4, The following article is extracted mainly from Pastor Russell's posthumous volume entitled "THE FINISHED MYSTERY," the 7th in the series of his STUDIES IN THE SCRIPTURES and published subsequent to his death.  

51.    Jump up ^  Lawson, John D., American State Trials, vol 13, Thomas Law Book Company, 1921, pg viii: "After his death and after we were in the war they issued a seventh volume of this series, entitled "The Finished Mystery," which, under the guise of being a posthumous work of Pastor Russell, included an attack on the war and an attack on patriotism, which were not written by Pastor Russell and could not have possibly been written by him."  

52.    Jump up ^  Crompton, Robert (1996). Counting the Days to Armageddon. Cambridge: James Clarke & Co. pp. 84–85. ISBN 0-227-67939-3. One of Rutherford's first actions as president ... was, without reference either to his fellow directors or to the editorial committee which Russell had nominated in his will, to commission a seventh volume of Studies in the Scriptures. Responsibility for preparing this volume was given to two of Russell's close associates, George H. Fisher and Clayton J. Woodworth. On the face of it, their brief was to edit for publication the notes left by Russell ... and to draw upon his published writings ... It is obvious ... that it was not in any straightforward sense the result of editing Russell's papers, rather it was in large measure the original work of Woodworth and Fisher at the behest of the new president.  

53.    Jump up ^  "Publisher's Preface". The Finished Mystery. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. 1917. But the fact is, he did write it. This book may properly be said to be a posthumous publication of Pastor Russell. Why?... This book is chiefly a compilation of things which he wrote and which have been brought together in harmonious style by properly applying the symbols which he explained to the Church.  

54.    Jump up ^  Penton 1997, p. 55  

55.    Jump up ^  Rogerson, Alan (1969). Millions Now Living Will Never Die: A Study of Jehovah's Witnesses. Constable & Co, London. p. 44. ISBN 978-0094559400.  

56.    ^ Jump up to: a b Franz, Raymond (2007). "Chapter 4". In Search of Christian Freedom. Commentary Press. ISBN 0-914675-16-8.  

57.    Jump up ^  "7. Advertise the King and the Kingdom! (1919-1941)". Jehovah's Witnesses—Proclaimers of God's Kingdom. Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society. 1993. pp. 72–77.  

58.    Jump up ^  Rutherford, Joseph F. (1920). Millions Now Living Will Never Die!. Brooklyn, New York: International Bible Students Association. pp. 89–90. ISBN 978-1-4116-2898-4.  

59.    Jump up ^  Chryssides, George D. (2010). "How Prophecy Succeeds: The Jehovah's Witnesses and Prophetic Expectations". International Journal for the Study of New Religions. 1 (1): 39. doi:10.1558/ijsnr.v1i1.27. ISSN 2041-952X.  

60.    Jump up ^  Franz, Raymond (2007). In Search of Christian Freedom. p. 144. ISBN 0-914675-16-8.  

61.    Jump up ^  Salvation. as cited in Jehovah's Witnesses—Proclaimers of God's Kingdom. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. 1939. p. 76.  

62.    Jump up ^  Rogerson, Alan (1969). Millions Now Living Will Never Die: A Study of Jehovah's Witnesses. Constable & Co, London. pp. 39, 52. ISBN 978-0094559400.  

63.    Jump up ^  Herbert H. Stroup, The Jehovah's Witnesses, Colombia University Press, New York, 1945, pg 14,15: "Following his election the existence of the movement was threatened as never before. Many of those who remembered wistfully the halcyon days of Mr Russell's leadership found that the new incumbent did not fulfill their expectations of a saintly leader. Various elements split off from the parent body, and such fission continued throughout Rutherford's leadership."  

64.    ^ Jump up to: a b Penton 1997, pp. 58, 61  

65.    Jump up ^  Gruss, Edmond C. (2001). Jehovah's Witnesses: Their Claims, Doctrinal Changes, and Prophetic Speculation. What Does the Record Show?. Xulon Press. p. 218. ISBN 978-1-931232-30-2.  

66.    Jump up ^  Reed, David, Whither the Watchtower? Christian Research Journal, Summer 1993, pg 27: "By gradually replacing locally elected elders with his own appointees, he managed to transform a loose collection of semi-autonomous, democratically run congregations into a tight-knit organizational machine controlled from his office. Some local congregations broke away, forming such groups as the Chicago Bible Students, the Dawn Bible Students, and the Laymen's Home Missionary Movement, all of which continue to this day."  

67.    Jump up ^  Thirty Years a Watchtower Slave, William J. Schnell, Baker, Grand Rapids, 1956, as cited by Rogerson, page 52. Rogerson notes that it is not clear exactly how many Bible Students left, but quotes Rutherford (Jehovah, 1934, page 277) as saying "only a few" who left other religions were then "in God's organization".  

68.    Jump up ^  The Present Truth and Herald of Christ's Epiphany, P.S.L. Johnson (April 1927, pg 66). Johnson stated that between late 1923 and early 1927, "20,000 to 30,000 Truth people the world over have left the Society."  

69.    Jump up ^  Tony Wills (A People For His Name, pg. 167) cites The Watch Tower (December 1, 1927, pg 355) in which Rutherford states that "the larger percentage" of original Bible Students had by then departed.  

70.    Jump up ^  Gruss, Edmond C. (1970). Apostles of Denial: An Examination and Exposé of the History, Doctrines and Claims of the Jehovah's Witnesses. Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co. p. 265. ISBN 978-0-87552-305-7.  

71.    Jump up ^  Beckford 1975, p. 31  

72.    Jump up ^  Penton 1997, pp. 71–72  

73.    Jump up ^  Crompton, Robert (1996). Counting the Days to Armageddon. Cambridge: James Clarke & Co. pp. 109–110. ISBN 0-227-67939-3.  

74.    Jump up ^  Beckford 1975, p. 35  

75.    Jump up ^  Garbe, Detlef (2008). Between Resistance and Martyrdom: Jehovah's Witnesses in the Third Reich. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. p. 145. ISBN 0-299-20794-3.  

76.    Jump up ^  1943 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses. Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society. 1942. pp. 221–222.  

77.    Jump up ^  Jehovah's Witnesses in the Divine Purpose. Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society. 1959. pp. 312–313.  

78.    Jump up ^  Beckford 1975, pp. 47–52  

79.    Jump up ^  Beckford 1975, pp. 52–55  

80.    Jump up ^  Penton 1997, pp. 89–90  

81.    ^ Jump up to: a b George Chryssides, They Keep Changing the Dates, A paper presented at the CESNUR 2010 conference in Torino.  

82.    Jump up ^  Chryssides, George D. (2008). Historical Dictionary of Jehovah's Witnesses. Scarecrow Press. p. 19. ISBN 0-8108-6074-0.  

83.    ^ Jump up to: a b Penton 1997, p. 95  

84.    Jump up ^  Botting, Heather; Gary Botting (1984). The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. p. 46. ISBN 0-8020-6545-7.  

85.    Jump up ^  "Awake!". Watch Tower Bible & Tract Society. October 8, 1968. p. 14. Does this mean that the above evidence positively points to 1975 as the complete end of this system of things? Since the Bible does not specifically state this, no man can say... If the 1970s should see intervention by Jehovah God to bring an end to a corrupt world drifting toward ultimate disintegration, that should surely not surprise us.  

86.    Jump up ^  "How Are You Using Your Life?". Our Kingdom Ministry. May 1974. p. 63. Reports are heard of brothers selling their homes and property and planning to finish out the rest of their days in this old system in the pioneer service. Certainly, this is a fine way to spend the short time remaining before the wicked world's end.  

87.    Jump up ^  Franz, Raymond. "1975—The Appropriate Time for God to Act". Crisis of Conscience  (PDF) . pp. 237–253. ISBN 0-914675-23-0. Archived from the original  (PDF) on 2003-12-09. Retrieved 2006-07-27.   

88.    Jump up ^  Singelenberg, Richard (1989). "The '1975'-prophecy and its impact among Dutch Jehovah's Witnesses". Sociological Analysis. 50 (1): 23–40. doi:10.2307/3710916. JSTOR 3710916. Notes a nine percent drop in total publishers (door-to-door preachers) and a 38 per cent drop in pioneers (full-time preachers) in the Netherlands.  

89.    ^ Jump up to: a b Stark and Iannoccone (1997). "Why the Jehovah's Witnesses Grow So Rapidly: A Theoretical Application"  (PDF) . Journal of Contemporary Religion: 142–143. Retrieved 2013-07-16.   

90.    Jump up ^  Dart, John (January 30, 1982). "Defectors Feel 'Witness' Wrath: Critics say Baptism Rise Gives False Picture of Growth". Los Angeles Times. p. B4. Cited statistics showing a net increase of publishers worldwide from 1971 to 1981 of 737,241, while baptisms totaled 1.71 million for the same period.  

91.    ^ Jump up to: a b Hesse, Hans (2001). Persecution and Resistance of Jehovah's Witnesses During the Nazi-Regime. Chicago: Edition Temmen c/o. pp. 296, 298. ISBN 3-861-08750-2.  

92.    Jump up ^  "The Watchtower". March 15, 1980. pp. 17–18. With the appearance of the book Life Everlasting—in Freedom of the Sons of God, ... considerable expectation was aroused regarding the year 1975. ... there were other statements published that implied that such realization of hopes by that year was more of a probability than a mere possibility. It is to be regretted that these latter statements apparently overshadowed the cautionary ones and contributed to a buildup of the expectation already initiated. ... persons having to do with the publication of the information ... contributed to the buildup of hopes centered on that date.  

93.    Jump up ^  Chryssides & Historical Dictionary of Jehovah's Witnesses, pp. 32,112  

94.    Jump up ^  Chryssides & Historical Dictionary of Jehovah's Witnesses, p. 64  

95.    Jump up ^  Joel P. Engardio (December 18, 1995), "Apocalypse Later", Newsweek  

96.    Jump up ^  Penton 1997, p. 317  

97.    Jump up ^  John Dart, "Jehovah's Witnesses Abandon Key Tenet", Los Angeles Times, November 4, 1995.  

98.    Jump up ^  ""Let Your Kingdom Come"—But When? - Study". Official website of Jehovah's Witnesses. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania.  

99.    Jump up ^  "Overseers and Ministerial Servants Theocratically Appointed". The Watchtower. 15 January 2001. p. 16. Theocratic appointments come from Jehovah through his Son and God's visible earthly channel, "the faithful and discreet slave" and its Governing Body.  

100.                     Jump up ^  "Following Faithful Shepherds with Life in View". The Watchtower. October 1, 1967. pp. 591–92. Make haste to identify the visible theocratic organization of God that represents his king, Jesus Christ. It is essential for life. Doing so, be complete in accepting its every aspect. We cannot claim to love God, yet deny his Word and channel of communication. Therefore, in submitting to Jehovah's visible theocratic organization, we must be in full and complete agreement with every feature of its apostolic procedure and requirements.  

101.                     ^ Jump up to: a b c Penton 1997, p. 211  

102.                     Jump up ^  "What Is the Governing Body of Jehovah's Witnesses?". Official website of Jehovah's Witnesses. Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania.  

103.                     Jump up ^  Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania. 2007 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses. pp. 4, 6.  

104.                     Jump up ^  Botting, Heather & Gary (1984). The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-6545-7.  

105.                     Jump up ^  Franz, Raymond (2007). In Search of Christian Freedom. Commentary Press. p. 123. ISBN 0-914675-17-6.  

106.                     Jump up ^  "How the Governing Body Is Organized". The Watchtower. May 15, 2008. p. 29.  

107.                     Jump up ^  "Seek God's guidance in all things". The Watchtower. April 15, 2008. p. 11.  

108.                     Jump up ^  Franz, Raymond (2007). In Search of Christian Freedom. Commentary Press. p. 153. ISBN 0-914675-17-6.  

109.                     Jump up ^  "Preaching and Teaching Earth Wide — 2009 Grand Totals". 2010 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. 2010. p. 42.  

110.                     Jump up ^  "Annual Meeting Report". Official website of Jehovah's Witnesses. The Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania.  

111.                     Jump up ^  Penton 1997, p. 101, 233–235  

112.                     Jump up ^  Chryssides & Historical Dictionary of Jehovah's Witnesses, pp. 17–18  

113.                     Jump up ^  Penton, M. James (2015). Apocalypse delayed: the story of Jehovah's Witnesses (3rd ed.). University of Toronto Press. pp. 326, 460–461. ISBN 978-1442616059. For many years they received only $14 per month, but that has been increased during the last several decades to $100 or more per month, and their clothing allowance has also been increased significantly. Barbara Anderson relates that she and her husband received $100 a month, were given board and room, and had a yearly clothing allowance of $250 during the years they were at Bethel until they left in 1997. Although Bethelites may receive somewhat more today, they are certainly not paid anything like 'real wages.'  

114.                     Jump up ^  Botting, Heather; Gary Botting (1984). The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. p. 32. ISBN 0-8020-6545-7. Missionaries, circuit overseers, district overseers, special pioneers, and branch-office workers receive small allowances each month.  

115.                     Jump up ^  "Watchtower Society". Encyclopedia of American Religion and Politics. p. 466. The religious order of Jehovah's Witnesses caters to the needs of all volunteers who have taken a vow of poverty and obedience.  

116.                     ^ Jump up to: a b Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael (2006), Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America, 2, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, p. 69, ISBN 0-275-98712-4  

117.                     Jump up ^  Taylor, Elizabeth J. (2012). Religion: A Clinical Guide for Nurses. Springer Publishing Company. p. 163. ISBN 0-8261-0860-1.  

118.                     Jump up ^  "Pay Attention to Yourselves and to All the Flock". Watch Tower Society. 1981. p. 147.  

119.                     Jump up ^  "Case Study 29: Transcript (day 147)", page 16, Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse, 27 July 2015.  

120.                     Jump up ^  Hoekema, Anthony A. (1963). The Four Major Cults. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans. p. 291. ISBN 0-8028-3117-6.  

121.                     ^ Jump up to: a b Franz, Raymond (2007). In Search of Christian Freedom. Commentary Press. pp. 116–120. ISBN 0-914675-16-8.  

122.                     Jump up ^  Chryssides & Historical Dictionary of Jehovah's Witnesses, p. 14  

123.                     Jump up ^  "Baptism and Your Relationship With God". What Does the Bible Really Teach. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. p. 182. Going beneath the water symbolizes that you have died to your former life course. Being raised up out of the water indicates that you are now alive to do the will of God. Remember, too, that you have made a dedication to Jehovah God himself, not to a work, a cause, other humans, or an organization.  

124.                     Jump up ^  Franz, Raymond (2007). In Search of Christian Freedom. Commentary Press. pp. 449–464. ISBN 0-914675-16-8.  

125.                     Jump up ^  Holden, 2002 & Portrait, p. 32, "The structure of the movement and the intense loyalty demanded of each individual at every level demonstrates the characteristics of totalitarianism."  

126.                     Jump up ^  "30. What You Must Do to Live Forever". You Can Live Forever in Paradise on Earth. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. 1989. p. 255. It is simply not true that all religions lead to the same goal. (Matthew 7:21–23; 24:21) You must be part of Jehovah's organization, doing God's will, in order to receive his blessing of everlasting life.  

127.                     Jump up ^  "You Can Live Forever in Paradise on Earth—But How?". The Watchtower. February 15, 1983. p. 12. Jehovah is using only one organization today to accomplish his will. To receive everlasting life in the earthly Paradise we must identify that organization and serve God as part of it.  

128.                     Jump up ^  "Serving Jehovah Loyally". The Watchtower. November 15, 1992. p. 21. I determined to stay by the faithful organization. How else can one get Jehovah's favor and blessing?" There is nowhere else to go for divine favor and life eternal.  

129.                     ^ Jump up to: a b Meyers, Jim (October 2010). "Jehovah's Witnesses — Publishing Titans"  (PDF) . Newsmax. West Palm Beach, FL: Newsmax Media.   

130.                     Jump up ^  "Online Bible". Official website of Jehovah's Witnesses. The Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania.  

131.                     Jump up ^  Joe Pompeo (30 September 2010). "Did You Know The Most Widely Circulated Magazine In The World Is The Monthly Publication Of Jehovah's Witnesses?". Business Insider.  

132.                     Jump up ^  "8. Tools for Preaching — Producing Literature for the Worldwide Field". God's Kingdom Rules!. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. 2014. p. 79.  

133.                     Jump up ^  "AT THE TOP / NYC COMPANY PROFILES / NYC 40".  

134.                     Jump up ^  2002 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. 2002. p. 31.  

135.                     Jump up ^  Van Voorst, Robert E. (2012). RELG: World (with Religion CourseMate with eBook Printed Access Card). Cengage Learning. p. 288. ISBN 1-1117-2620-5.  

136.                     Jump up ^  "Remember Those Who Are Taking the Lead Among You". Organized to Do Jehovah's Will. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. 2015. pp. 17–19.  

137.                     Jump up ^  "Cooperating With the Governing Body Today". The Watchtower. March 15, 1990. p. 19.  

138.                     Jump up ^  Beckford 1975, p. 119  

139.                     Jump up ^  "Focus on the Goodness of Jehovah's Organization". The Watchtower. 15 July 2006. p. 22.  

140.                     Jump up ^  "Impart God's Progressive Revelation to Mankind". The Watchtower. March 1, 1965. pp. 158–159.  

141.                     Jump up ^  Penton 1997, pp. 165–171  

142.                     Jump up ^  "Flashes of Light—Great and Small". The Watchtower. May 15, 1995. p. 15.  

143.                     Jump up ^  "The Path of the Righteous Does Keep Getting Brighter". The Watchtower. December 1, 1981. pp. 26–31.  

144.                     Jump up ^  Penton 1997, p. 165  

145.                     Jump up ^  Rutherford, Joseph (1933). Preparation. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. pp. 64, 67. Enlightenment proceeds from Jehovah by and through Christ Jesus and is given to the faithful anointed on earth at the temple, and brings great peace and consolation to them. Again Zechariah talked with the angel of the Lord, which shows that the remnant are instructed by the angels of the Lord. The remnant do not hear audible sounds, because such is not necessary. Jehovah has provided his own good way to convey thoughts to the minds of his anointed ones ... Those of the remnant, being honest and true, must say, We do not know; and the Lord enlightens them, sending his angels for that very purpose.  

146.                     Jump up ^  "The Spirit Searches into the Deep Things of God". The Watchtower. July 15, 2010. p. 23. When the time comes to clarify a spiritual matter in our day, holy spirit helps responsible representatives of 'the faithful and discreet slave' at world headquarters to discern deep truths that were not previously understood. The Governing Body as a whole considers adjusted explanations. What they learn, they publish for the benefit of all.  

147.                     Jump up ^  "Do We Need Help to Understand the Bible?". The Watchtower. February 15, 1981. p. 19. True, the brothers preparing these publications are not infallible. Their writings are not inspired as are those of Paul and the other Bible writers. (2 Tim. 3:16) And so, at times, it has been necessary, as understanding became clearer, to correct views. (Prov. 4:18)  

148.                     Jump up ^  "Do You See the Evidence of God's Guidance?". The Watchtower. April 15, 2011. pp. 3–5. How, then, do we react when we receive divine direction? Do we try to apply it "right afterward"? Or do we continue doing things just as we have been accustomed to doing them? Are we familiar with up-to-date directions, such as those regarding conducting home Bible studies, preaching to foreign speaking people, regularly sharing in family worship, cooperating with Hospital Liaison Committees, and conducting ourselves properly at conventions? ... Do you clearly discern the evidence of divine guidance? Jehovah uses his organization to guide us, his people, through "the wilderness" during these last days of Satan's wicked world.  

149.                     Jump up ^  "Unity Identifies True Worship". The Watchtower. September 15, 2010. p. 13.  

150.                     ^ Jump up to: a b "Overseers of Jehovah's People". The Watchtower. June 15, 1957. pp. 369–375. Let us now unmistakably identify Jehovah's channel of communication for our day, that we may continue in his favor ... It is vital that we appreciate this fact and respond to the directions of the "slave" as we would to the voice of God, because it is His provision.  

151.                     Jump up ^  Penton 1997, p. 172  

152.                     Jump up ^  "Archaeology and the Inspired Record". All Scripture is Inspired of God. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. 1990. p. 336.  

153.                     Jump up ^  "All Scripture Is Inspired of God and Beneficial". All Scripture is Inspired of God. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. 1990. p. 9.  

154.                     Jump up ^  "Jehovah's Witnesses". Reasoning From The Scriptures. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. 1989. pp. 199–208.  

155.                     Jump up ^  Holden, 2002 & Portrait, p. 67, "Materials such as The Watchtower are almost as significant to the Witnesses as the Bible, since the information is presented as the inspired work of theologians, and they are, therefore, believed to contain as much truth as biblical texts."  

156.                     ^ Jump up to: a b James A. Beverley, Crisis of Allegiance, Welch Publishing Company, Burlington, Ontario, 1986, ISBN 0-920413-37-4, pages 25–26, 101, "For every passage in Society literature that urges members to be bold and courageous in critical pursuits, there are many others that warn about independent thinking and the peril of questioning the organization ... Fear of disobedience to the Governing Body keeps Jehovah's Witnesses from carefully checking into biblical doctrine or allegations concerning false prophecy, faulty scholarship, and injustice. Witnesses are told not to read books like this one."  

157.                     Jump up ^  "Keep Clear of False Worship!". The Watchtower. 15 March 2006. pp. 27–31. True Christians keep clear of false worship, rejecting false religious teachings. This means that we avoid exposure to religious programs on radio and television as well as religious literature that promotes lies about God and his Word.  

158.                     Jump up ^  "Questions From Readers—Why do Jehovah's Witnesses decline to exchange their Bible study aids for the religious literature of people they meet". The Watchtower. May 1, 1984. p. 31. So it would be foolhardy, as well as a waste of valuable time, for Jehovah's Witnesses to accept and expose themselves to false religious literature that is designed to deceive.  

159.                     Jump up ^  "Question Box". Our Kingdom Ministry. September 2007. p. 3. Throughout the earth, Jehovah's people are receiving ample spiritual instruction and encouragement at congregation meetings, assemblies, and conventions, as well as through the publications of Jehovah's organization. Under the guidance of his holy spirit and on the basis of his Word of truth, Jehovah provides what is needed so that all of God's people may be fitly united in the same mind and in the same line of thought and remain stabilized in the faith. Surely we are grateful for Jehovah's spiritual provisions in these last days. Thus, the faithful and discreet slave does not endorse any literature, meetings, or Web sites that are not produced or organized under its oversight.  

160.                     Jump up ^  "Make Your Advancement Manifest". The Watchtower. August 1, 2001. p. 14. Since oneness is to be observed, a mature Christian must be in unity and full harmony with fellow believers as far as faith and knowledge are concerned. He does not advocate or insist on personal opinions or harbor private ideas when it comes to Bible understanding. Rather, he has complete confidence in the truth as it is revealed by Jehovah God through his Son, Jesus Christ, and the faithful and discreet slave.  

161.                     Jump up ^  Testimony by Fred Franz, Transcript, Lord Strachan vs. Douglas Walsh, 1954. page 123, Q: "Did you imply that the individual member has the right of reading the books and the Bible and forming his own view as to the proper interpretation of Holy Writ? A:" .... No....The Scripture is there given in support of the statement, and therefore the individual when he looks up the Scripture and thereby verifies the statement,[es] the Scripture to see whether these things were so."  

162.                     Jump up ^  "Do We Need Help to Understand the Bible?". The Watchtower. February 15, 1981. p. 19. Jesus’ disciples wrote many letters to Christian congregations, to persons who were already in the way of the truth. But nowhere do we read that those brothers first, in a skeptical frame of mind, checked the Scriptures to make certain that those letters had Scriptural backing, that the writers really knew what they were talking about. We can benefit from this consideration. If we have once established what instrument God is using as his 'slave' to dispense spiritual food to his people, surely Jehovah is not pleased if we receive that food as though it might contain something harmful. We should have confidence in the channel God is using.  

163.                     Jump up ^  Beckford 1975, pp. 84, 89, 92, 119–120  

164.                     Jump up ^  "Questions From Readers". The Watchtower. April 1, 1986. pp. 30–31.  

165.                     Jump up ^  Holden, 2002 & Portrait, p. 24  

166.                     Jump up ^  Ringnes, Hege Kristin; Sødal, Helje Kringlebotn, eds. (2009). Jehovas vitner: en flerfaglig studie (in Norwegian). Oslo: Universitetsforlaget. p. 27. ISBN 978-82-15-01453-1.  

167.                     Jump up ^  Holden, A. (2002). Cavorting With the Devil: Jehovah's Witnesses Who Abandon Their Faith  (PDF) . Department of Sociology, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YL, UK. p. Endnote [i]. Retrieved 2017-04-04.   

168.                     Jump up ^  Alan Rogerson (1969). Millions Now Living Will Never Die. Constable. p. 87.  

169.                     Jump up ^  Beckford 1975, p. 105  

170.                     Jump up ^  Revelation Its Grand Climax. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. 1988. p. 36. In the songbook produced by Jehovah's people in 1905, there were twice as many songs praising Jesus as there were songs praising Jehovah God. In their 1928 songbook, the number of songs extolling Jesus was about the same as the number extolling Jehovah. But in the latest songbook of 1984, Jehovah is honored by four times as many songs as is Jesus. This is in harmony with Jesus' own words: 'The Father is greater than I am.' Love for Jehovah must be preeminent, accompanied by deep love for Jesus and appreciation of his precious sacrifice and office as God's High Priest and King.  

171.                     Jump up ^  Alan Rogerson (1969). Millions Now Living Will Never Die. Constable. p. 90.  

172.                     Jump up ^  "What is the Holy Spirit?". The Watchtower. October 1, 2009. p. 5. There is a close connection between the holy spirit and the power of God. The holy spirit is the means by which Jehovah exerts his power. Put simply, the holy spirit is God's applied power, or his active force.  

173.                     Jump up ^  Hoekema 1963, p. 262  

174.                     Jump up ^  Hoekema 1963, pp. 276–277  

175.                     Jump up ^  Penton 1997, p. 372  

176.                     Jump up ^  Hoekema 1963, p. 270  

177.                     Jump up ^  "Stay in the "City of Refuge" and Live!". The Watchtower. November 15, 1995. p. 19.  

178.                     Jump up ^  Penton 1997, pp. 188–189  

179.                     ^ Jump up to: a b Penton 1997, pp. 188–190  

180.                     Jump up ^  Hoekema 1963, pp. 298–299  

181.                     Jump up ^  Holden, 2002 & Portrait, p. 25  

182.                     Jump up ^  "Identifying the Wild Beast and Its Mark". The Watchtower. 1 April 2004. p. 5. This does not mean, however, that every human ruler is a direct tool of Satan.  

183.                     Jump up ^  Hoekema 1963, pp. 322–324  

184.                     ^ Jump up to: a b Hoekema 1963, pp. 265–269  

185.                     Jump up ^  Penton 1997, p. 186  

186.                     Jump up ^  Penton 1997, p. 193–194  

187.                     Jump up ^  "Young Ones—Are You Ready to Get Baptized". The Watchtower (study ed.). March 2016. p. 4. It is a great privilege to get baptized as one of Jehovah's Witnesses. Moreover, baptism is a requirement for Christians, and it is a vital step toward gaining salvation.  

188.                     Jump up ^  "Remaining Organized for Survival Into the Millennium". The Watchtower. September 1, 1989. p. 19. Only Jehovah's Witnesses, those of the anointed remnant and the 'great crowd,'as a united organization under the protection of the Supreme Organizer, have any Scriptural hope of surviving the impending end of this doomed system dominated by Satan the Devil.  

189.                     Jump up ^  You Can Live Forever in Paradise on Earth. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. 1989. p. 255. Do not conclude that there are different roads, or ways, that you can follow to gain life in God's new system. There is only one ... there will be only one organization—God's visible organization—that will survive the fast-approaching 'great tribulation.' It is simply not true that all religions lead to the same goal. You must be part of Jehovah's organization, doing God's will, in order to receive his blessing of everlasting life.  

190.                     Jump up ^  "Our Readers Ask: Do Jehovah's Witnesses Believe That They Are the Only Ones Who Will Be Saved?". The Watchtower. November 1, 2008. p. 28. Jehovah's Witnesses hope to be saved. However, they also believe that it is not their job to judge who will be saved. Ultimately, God is the Judge. He decides.  

191.                     Jump up ^  Hoekema 1963, pp. 315–319  

192.                     Jump up ^  "Declare Righteous". Insight on the Scriptures. 1. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. 1988. p. 606.  

193.                     Jump up ^  "A Royal Priesthood to Benefit All Mankind". The Watchtower. January 15, 2012. pp. 26–30.  

194.                     Jump up ^  Hoekema 1963, pp. 295–296  

195.                     Jump up ^  Alan Rogerson (1969). Millions Now Living Will Never Die. Constable. p. 106.  

196.                     Jump up ^  "God's Kingdom—Earth's New Rulership". The Watchtower. October 15, 2000. p. 10.  

197.                     Jump up ^  Hoekema 1963, p. 298  

198.                     Jump up ^  Alan Rogerson (1969). Millions Now Living Will Never Die. Constable. p. 105.  

199.                     Jump up ^  "Daniel's Prophetic Days and Our Faith". The Watchtower. November 1, 1993. pp. 8–9. In 1914 the appointed times of the nations ended, and the time of the end for this world began. The Davidic Kingdom was restored, not in earthly Jerusalem, but invisibly in "the clouds of the heavens." ... Who would represent on earth the restored Davidic Kingdom? ... Without any doubt at all, it was the small body of anointed brothers of Jesus who in 1914 were known as the Bible Students but since 1931 have been identified as Jehovah's Witnesses.  

200.                     Jump up ^  Hoekema 1963, p. 297  

201.                     Jump up ^  Hoekema 1963, pp. 286  

202.                     Jump up ^  "Tell Us, When Will These Things Be?". The Watchtower. July 15, 2013. pp. 4&ndash, 5. In the larger fulfillment, the "standing" will occur when the United Nations (the modern-day "disgusting thing") attacks Christendom (which is holy in the eyes of nominal Christians) and the rest of Babylon the Great. The same attack is described at Revelation 17:16-18. That event will be the beginning of the great tribulation.  

203.                     Jump up ^  "Apocalypse—When?". The Watchtower. February 15, 1986. p. 6.  

204.                     Jump up ^  Penton 1997, p. 180  

205.                     Jump up ^  Hoekema 1963, pp. 307–321  

206.                     Jump up ^  "Questions From Readers". The Watchtower. November 1, 1952. p. 670.  

207.                     Jump up ^  Penton 1997, p. 17–19  

208.                     Jump up ^  "The Messiah's Presence and His Rule". The Watchtower. October 1, 1992. p. 16.  

209.                     ^ Jump up to: a b Holden, 2002 & Portrait, pp. 64–69  

210.                     Jump up ^  "Highlights of the Past Year". Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. 2010. p. 6.  

211.                     Jump up ^  "Christian Families—"Keep Ready"". The Watchtower. May 15, 2011. p. 14.  

212.                     Jump up ^  Hoekema 1963, p. 292  

213.                     Jump up ^  Crompton, Robert (1996). Counting the Days to Armageddon. Cambridge: James Clarke & Co. p. 5. ISBN 0-227-67939-3.  

214.                     Jump up ^  Rogerson, Alan (1969). Millions Now Living Will Never Die: A Study of Jehovah's Witnesses. Constable & Co, London. p. 1. ISBN 978-0094559400.  

215.                     Jump up ^  Whalen, William J. (1962). Armageddon Around the Corner: A Report on Jehovah's Witnesses. New York: John Day Company. p. 15,18.  

216.                     Jump up ^  "Global Printing—Helping People to Learn About God". Watch Tower Society.  

217.                     Jump up ^  Ringnes & Sødal 2009, p. 43  

218.                     Jump up ^  "Be "Intensely Occupied" With Your Ministry". Our Kingdom Ministry. April 2001. p. 3. Your goal is to help the student achieve greater insight into the truth, qualify as an unbaptized publisher, and become a dedicated and baptized Witness of Jehovah  

219.                     Jump up ^  "18—Baptism and Your Relationship With God". What Does the Bible Really Teach?. pp. 174–183.  

220.                     Jump up ^  "Question Box: How long should a formal Bible study be conducted with an individual in the Knowledge book?". Our Kingdom Ministry. October 1996. We want people to receive a basic knowledge of the truth. Yet it is expected that within a relatively short period of time, an effective teacher will be able to assist a sincere average student to acquire sufficient knowledge to make an intelligent decision to serve Jehovah... Appreciation for taking in even a basic knowledge of the truth should motivate the student to attend Christian meetings. This could lead the student to giving some clear evidence of his desire to serve Jehovah. If such spiritual appreciation is not evident after the study in the Knowledge book has been conducted for an extended period, it may be advisable to discontinue the study.  

221.                     Jump up ^  Botting, Heather; Gary Botting (1984). The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. p. 77. ISBN 0-8020-6545-7. The society states explicitly that all Bible studies should quickly show signs of 'real progress' to be deemed worthy of pursuit ... unless the potential converts are willing to give clear indication that they accept both the doctrines and the consequent responsibilities of attending meetings and going from door to door themselves, the study should be discontinued.  

222.                     Jump up ^  Bearing Thorough Witness About God's Kingdom. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. 2009. p. 63. Do you obey the command to bear thorough witness, even if the assignment causes you some apprehension?  

223.                     Jump up ^  "Determined to bear thorough witness". The Watchtower. December 15, 2008. p. 19. When the resurrected Jesus spoke to disciples gathered in Galilee, likely 500 of them, he commanded: 'Go therefore and make disciples of people of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the holy spirit, teaching them to observe all the things I have commanded you.' That command applies to all true Christians today.  

224.                     Jump up ^  Botting, Heather; Gary Botting (1984). The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. p. 52. ISBN 0-8020-6545-7.  

225.                     Jump up ^  "Do You Contribute to an Accurate Report?". Our Kingdom Ministry. December 2002. p. 8. Jehovah's organization today instructs us to report our field service activity each month ... At the end of the month, the book study overseer makes sure that all in the group have followed through on their responsibility to report their activity.  

226.                     Jump up ^  "Regularity in Service Brings Blessings". Our Kingdom Ministry. May 1984. p. 7.  

227.                     Jump up ^  "Helping Irregular Publishers". Our Kingdom Ministry. December 1987. p. 7.  

228.                     Jump up ^  "Keep the Word of Jehovah Moving Speedily". Our Kingdom Ministry. October 1982. p. 1.  

229.                     Jump up ^  Chryssides, G.D. (1999). Exploring New Religions. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 103. ISBN 0-304-33651-3.  

230.                     Jump up ^  "Imitate Jehovah—Exercise Justice and Righteousness". The Watchtower. August 1, 1998. p. 16.  

231.                     ^ Jump up to: a b Holden, 2002 & Portrait, pp. 26–27, 173  

232.                     Jump up ^  "Questions From Readers". The Watchtower. June 15, 2002. pp. 30, 31.  

233.                     Jump up ^  Penton 1997, pp. 152, 180  

234.                     Jump up ^  "The Bible's Viewpoint What Does It Mean to Be the Head of the House?". Awake!. July 8, 2004. p. 26.  

235.                     Jump up ^  "Christian Weddings That Bring Joy". The Watchtower. 15 April 1984. p. 11.  

236.                     Jump up ^  Shepherd the Flock of God. pp. 37–38, 124–125.  

237.                     Jump up ^  "How should individual Christians and the congregation as a whole view the Bible advice to marry "only in the Lord"?". The Watchtower. 15 March 1982. p. 31.  

238.                     Jump up ^  Penton 1997, pp. 110–112  

239.                     Jump up ^  "Adultery". Insight on the Scriptures. 1. p. 53.  

240.                     Jump up ^  "Marriage—Why Many Walk Out". Awake. July 8, 1993. p. 6. A legal divorce or a legal separation may provide a measure of protection from extreme abuse or willful nonsupport.  

241.                     Jump up ^  "When Marital Peace Is Threatened". The Watchtower: 22. 1 November 1988.  

242.                     Jump up ^  Beckford 1975, pp. 54–55  

243.                     Jump up ^  Penton 1997, pp. 106–108  

244.                     ^ Jump up to: a b c Osamu Muramoto (August 1998). "Bioethics of the refusal of blood by Jehovah's Witnesses: Part 1. Should bioethical deliberation consider dissidents' views?". Journal of Medical Ethics. 24 (4): 223–230. doi:10.1136/jme.24.4.223. PMC 1377670. PMID 9752623.  

245.                     Jump up ^  "Discipline That Can Yield Peaceable Fruit". The Watchtower. April 15, 1988. pp. 26–31.  

246.                     Jump up ^  "Display Christian Loyalty When a Relative Is Disfellowshipped". Our Kingdom Ministry. August 2002. pp. 3–4.  

247.                     Jump up ^  "Disfellowshipping-How to View It". The Watchtower. 15 September 1981. p. 24.  

248.                     Jump up ^  "Appendix: How to Treat a Disfellowshipped person". Keep Yourselves in God's Love. Jehovah's Witnesses. 2008. pp. 207–209.  

249.                     ^ Jump up to: a b c Holden, 2002 & Portrait, p. 163  

250.                     Jump up ^  "Disfellowshiping—How to View It". The Watchtower. September 15, 1981. p. 23.  

251.                     Jump up ^  "Do You Hate Lawlessness?". The Watchtower. February 15, 2011. p. 31.  

252.                     Jump up ^  Franz, Raymond. Crisis of Conscience. p. 358.  

253.                     Jump up ^  "Questions From Readers". The Watchtower. January 1, 1983. pp. 30–31.  

254.                     Jump up ^  "Should the Religions Unite?". The Watchtower. 15 December 1953. pp. 741–742.  

255.                     Jump up ^  "Is Interfaith God's Way?". The Watchtower. 1 February 1952. p. 69.  

256.                     Jump up ^  Beckford 1975, p. 202, "The ideological argument states that, since absolute truth is unitary and exclusive of all relativisation, there can only 'logically' be one human organization to represent it. Consequently, all other religious organizations are in error and are to be strictly avoided. The absolutist view of truth further implies that, since anything less than absolute truth can only corrupt and destroy it, there can be no justification for Jehovah's witnesses having any kind of association with other religionists, however sincere the motivation might be."  

257.                     Jump up ^  "Worship That God Approves". What Does The Bible Really Teach?. p. 145.  

258.                     Jump up ^  World. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. 1989.  

259.                     Jump up ^  "Live a Balanced, Simple Life". The Watchtower. July 15, 1989. p. 11.  

260.                     Jump up ^  Holden, 2002 & Portrait, p. 12  

261.                     Jump up ^  "Keep Your Distance When Danger Threatens". The Watchtower. February 15, 1994. p. 23. Steering Clear of Danger ... We must also be on guard against extended association with worldly people. Perhaps it is a neighbor, a school friend, a workmate, or a business associate. ... What are some of the dangers of such a friendship? We could begin to minimize the urgency of the times we live in or take a growing interest in material rather than spiritual things. Perhaps, because of a fear of displeasing our worldly friend, we would even desire to be accepted by the world.  

262.                     Jump up ^  Holden, 2002 & Portrait, pp. 109–112  

263.                     Jump up ^  Franz, Raymond (2007). In Search of Christian Freedom. Commentary Press. p. 409. ISBN 0-914675-17-6.  

264.                     Jump up ^  "Each One Will Carry His Own Load". The Watchtower. March 15, 2006. p. 23.  

265.                     Jump up ^  Bryan R. Wilson, "The Persistence of Sects", Diskus, Journal of the British Association for the Study of Religions, Vol 1, No. 2, 1993, "They have extensive contact with the wider public, [in Britain in 1989, 108,000 publishers undertook 23 million hours of house-calls]. Yet, they remain little affected by that exposure—they confine their contacts to their single-minded purpose and avoid all other occasions for association."  

266.                     Jump up ^  Chryssides, George D. (2008). Historical Dictionary of Jehovah's Witnesses. Scarecrow Press. p. 47. ISBN 0-8108-6074-0. Most Witnesses do not pursue higher education. It is not forbidden but is a matter of conscience. Higher education creates the risk of detracting from one's spiritual work and can result in harmful associations with fellow students who may lack integrity. It is therefore recommended that, if possible, Witnesses who undergo should continue to live at home. Those who seek education beyond school level are urged to consider their motives for doing so: education should not be for personal status or for a high salary  

267.                     Jump up ^  "Parents-What Future Do You Want for Your Children?". The Watchtower. October 1, 2005. pp. 26–31.  

268.                     Jump up ^  "Questions From Readers". The Watchtower. November 1, 1999. p. 28. As to whether they will personally vote for someone running in an election, each one of Jehovah's Witnesses makes a decision based on his Bible-trained conscience and an understanding of his responsibility to God and to the State.  

269.                     Jump up ^  "Questions From Readers". The Watchtower. March 1, 1983. p. 30.  

270.                     Jump up ^  "Why Do Jehovah's Witnesses Maintain Political Neutrality?". Watch Tower Society.  

271.                     Jump up ^  "Reasoning From The Scriptures". The Watchtower. p. 178.  

272.                     Jump up ^  "Keep Yourselves in God's Love". The Watchtower. August 15, 2009. p. 22.  

273.                     Jump up ^  "The Seriousness of It". The Watchtower. September 15, 1968. p. 6.  

274.                     Jump up ^  "Work to Preserve Your Family Into God's New World". The Watchtower. October 15, 1992. p. 21.  

275.                     Jump up ^  Worship the Only True God. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. 2002. p. 159.  

276.                     Jump up ^  "Korea government promises to adopt alternative service system for conscientious objectors". Jehovah's Witnesses Official Media Web Site. Office of Public Information of Jehovah's Witnesses. October 4, 2007. Archived from the original on December 24, 2009.  

277.                     Jump up ^  Education. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. 2002. pp. 20–23.  

278.                     Jump up ^  Owens, Gene (September 1997). "Trials of a Jehovah's Witness.(The Faith of Journalists)". Nieman Reports.  

279.                     Jump up ^  Ronald Lawson, "Sect-state relations: Accounting for the differing trajectories of Seventh-Day Adventists and Jehovah's Witnesses", Sociology of Religion, Winter 1995, "The urgency of the Witness's apocalyptic has changed very little over time. The intellectual isolation of the Witness leaders has allowed them to retain their traditional position, and it is they who continue to be the chief purveyors of the radical eschataology ....This commitment (to principle) was bolstered by their organizational isolation, intense indoctrination of adherents, rigid internal discipline, and considerable persecution."  

280.                     Jump up ^  Penton 1997, p. i  

281.                     Jump up ^  Reasoning From the Scriptures. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. 1989. pp. 70–75.  

282.                     Jump up ^  Holden, 2002 & Portrait, p. 91  

283.                     Jump up ^  Muramoto, O. (January 6, 2001). "Bioethical aspects of the recent changes in the policy of refusal of blood by Jehovah's Witnesses". BMJ. 322 (7277): 37–39. doi:10.1136/bmj.322.7277.37. PMC 1119307. PMID 11141155.  

284.                     Jump up ^  Jehovah's Witnesses—Proclaimers of God's Kingdom. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. 1993. p. 183.  

285.                     Jump up ^  United in Worship of the Only True God. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. 1983. pp. 156–160.  

286.                     Jump up ^  Bowman, R. M.; Beisner, E. C.; Ehrenborg, T. (1995). Jehovah's Witnesses. Zondervan. p. 13. ISBN 0-310-70411-1.  

287.                     Jump up ^  Botting, Heather; Gary Botting (1984). The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. pp. 29–30. ISBN 0-8020-6545-7.  

288.                     Jump up ^  How Blood Can Save Your Life. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. 1990. pp. 13–17.  

289.                     Jump up ^  "Questions From Readers—Do Jehovah's Witnesses accept any medical products derived from blood?". The Watchtower. June 15, 2000. p. 30.  

290.                     Jump up ^  Sniesinski; Chen, EP; Levy, JH; Szlam, F; Tanaka, KA; et al. (April 2007). "Coagulopathy After Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Jehovah's Witness Patients: Management of Two Cases Using Fractionated Components and Factor VIIa"  (PDF) . Anesthesia & Analgesia. 104 (4): 763–5. doi:10.1213/01.ane.0000250913.45299.f3. PMID 17377078. Retrieved 2008-12-30.   

291.                     Jump up ^  "The Real Value of Blood". Awake!. August 2006. p. 11.  

292.                     Jump up ^  Durable Power of Attorney form. Watch Tower Society. January 2001. p. 1. Examples of permitted fractions are: Interferon, Immune Serum Globulins and Factor VIII; preparations made from Hemoglobin such as PolyHeme and Hemopure. Examples of permitted procedures involving the medical use of one's own blood include: cell salvage, hemodilution, heart lung machine, dialysis, epidural blood patch, plasmapheresis, blood labeling or tagging and platelet gel (autologous)  

293.                     Jump up ^  "Our Kingdom Ministry"  (PDF) . November 2006. pp. 5–6.   

294.                     Jump up ^  "Jehovah's Witnesses and Medical Profession Cooperate". Awake!. November 22, 1993. pp. 24–27.  

295.                     Jump up ^  Kim Archer, "Jehovah's Witness liaisons help surgeons adapt", Tulsa World, May 15, 2007.  

296.                     Jump up ^  "Question Box–Should a family Bible study be reported to the congregation?". Our Kingdom Ministry. Watch Tower Society. November 2003. p. 3.  

297.                     Jump up ^  "Question Box—May both parents report the time used for the regular family study?". Our Kingdom Ministry. September 2008. p. 3.  

298.                     Jump up ^  "Jehovah's Witnesses Official Media Web Site: Our History and Organization: Membership". Office of Public Information of Jehovah's Witnesses. Archived from the original on 2012-12-04. While other religious groups count their membership by occasional or annual attendance, this figure reflects only those who are actively involved in the public Bible educational work [of Jehovah's Witnesses].  

299.                     Jump up ^  "U.S. Religious Landscape Survey Religious Affiliation: Diverse and Dynamic". Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. February 2008: 9, 30.  

300.                     Jump up ^  "Advent Christian Church- Religious Groups - The Association of Religion Data Archives".  

301.                     Jump up ^  David Van Biema, "America's Unfaithful Faithful," Time magazine, February 25, 2008.  

302.                     Jump up ^  PEW Forum on Religion and Public Life. U.S. Religious Landscape Survey: Religious Affiliation: Diverse and Dynamic. The next lowest retention rates, excluding those raised unaffiliated with any church, were Buddhism at 50% and Catholicism at 68%.  

303.                     ^ Jump up to: a b "A closer look at Jehovah's Witnesses living in the U.S." Pew Research Center.  

304.                     Jump up ^  Beckford 1975, pp. 92, 98–100  

305.                     Jump up ^  Beckford 1975, pp. 196–207  

306.                     Jump up ^  Bryan R. Wilson, "The Persistence of Sects", Diskus, Journal of the British Association for the Study of Religions, Vol 1, No. 2, 1993  

307.                     Jump up ^  "Religious Beliefs and Practices". U.S. Religious Landscape Survey. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 14 December 2017.  

308.                     Jump up ^  "Jehovah's Witnesses". U.S. Religious Landscape Survey. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 14 December 2017.  

309.                     Jump up ^  Jubber, Ken (1977). "The Persecution of Jehovah's Witnesses in Southern Africa". Social Compass. 24 (1): 121–134. doi:10.1177/003776867702400108.  

310.                     Jump up ^  Jehovah's Witnesses—Proclaimers of God's Kingdom. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. 1993. p. 490.  

311.                     Jump up ^  Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. 1991. p. 222.  

312.                     Jump up ^  Penton, James (2004). Jehovah's witnesses and the third reich. University of Toronto Press. p. 376. ISBN 0802086780.  

313.                     Jump up ^  Garbe, Detlef (2008). Between Resistance and Martyrdom: Jehovah's Witnesses in the Third Reich. Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press. p. 484. ISBN 0-299-20794-3.  

314.                     Jump up ^  Shulman, William L. A State of Terror: Germany 1933–1939. Bayside, New York: Holocaust Resource Center and Archives.  

315.                     Jump up ^  Holocaust Education Foundation website.  

316.                     Jump up ^  Hesse, Hans (2001). Persecution and Resistance of Jehovah's Witnesses During the Nazi Regime. Edition Temmen. p. 12. ISBN 3-86108-750-2.  

317.                     Jump up ^  Kaplan, William (1989). State and Salvation. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.  

318.                     Jump up ^  Yaffee, Barbara (1984-09-09). "Witnesses Seek Apology for Wartime Persecution". The Globe and Mail. p. 4.  

319.                     Jump up ^  Supreme Court of Canada. "Saumur v Quebec (City of)". [1953] 2 SCR 299. Archived from the original on 2011-07-06.  

320.                     Jump up ^  Supreme Court of Canada. "Roncarelli v Duplessis". [1959] SCR 121. Archived from the original on 2013-01-12.  

321.                     Jump up ^  Валерий Пасат ."Трудные страницы истории Молдовы (1940–1950)". Москва: Изд. Terra, 1994 (in Russian)  

322.                     Jump up ^  "Russian court bans Jehovah's Witnesses as extremist". Retrieved 20 April 2017.  

323.                     Jump up ^  Peters, Shawn Francis (2000). Judging Jehovah's Witnesses: Religious Persecution and the Dawn of the Rights Revolution. University Press of Kansas. pp. 82, 116–9. ISBN 0-7006-1008-1.  

324.                     Jump up ^  Barbara Grizzuti Harrison, Visions of Glory, 1978, chapter 6.  

325.                     Jump up ^  Whalen, William J. (1962). Armageddon Around the Corner: A Report on Jehovah's Witnesses. New York: John Day Company. p. 190.  

326.                     Jump up ^  Schnell, William (1971). 30 Years a Watchtower Slave. Baker Book House, Grand Rapids. pp. 104–106. ISBN 0-8010-6384-1.  

327.                     Jump up ^  Rogerson, Alan (1969). Millions Now Living Will Never Die: A Study of Jehovah's Witnesses. Constable & Co, London. p. 59. ISBN 978-0094559400.  

328.                     Jump up ^  Advice for Kingdom Publishers. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. 1939. pp. 5–6, 14.  

329.                     Jump up ^  Gary Botting, Fundamental Freedoms and Jehovah's Witnesses (Calgary: University of Calgary Press, 1993)  

330.                     Jump up ^  Jehovah's Witnesses—Proclaimers of God's Kingdom. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. 1993. pp. 679–701.  

331.                     Jump up ^  Botting, Fundamental Freedoms and Jehovah's Witnesses, pp. 1–14; Shawn Francis Peters, Judging Jehovah's Witnesses, University Press of Kansas: 2000, pages 12–16.  

332.                     Jump up ^  "Jehovah's Witnesses and civil rights". Archived from the original on 1 September 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2012.  

333.                     Jump up ^  Botting, Fundamental Freedoms..., pp. 15–201  

334.                     ^ Jump up to: a b Holden, 2002 & Portrait, p. 22  

335.                     Jump up ^  "Case Study 29: Transcript (day 155)", page 6, Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse, July 2015.  

336.                     Jump up ^  "Following Faithful Shepherds with Life in View". The Watchtower. October 1, 1967. p. 591. Make haste to identify the visible theocratic organization of God that represents his king, Jesus Christ. It is essential for life. Doing so, be complete in accepting its every aspect ... in submitting to Jehovah's visible theocratic organization, we must be in full and complete agreement with every feature of its apostolic procedure and requirements.  

337.                     Jump up ^  "Loyal to Christ and His Faithful Slave". The Watchtower. April 1, 2007. p. 24. When we loyally submit to the direction of the faithful slave and its Governing Body, we are submitting to Christ, the slave's Master.  

338.                     ^ Jump up to: a b Beckford 1975, pp. 89, 95, 103, 120, 204, 221  

339.                     Jump up ^  "'Exposing the Devil's Subtle Designs' and 'Armed for the Fight Against Wicked Spirits'". The Watchtower. January 15, 1983. pp. 18–27.  

340.                     Jump up ^  "Serving Jehovah Shoulder to Shoulder". The Watchtower. August 15, 1981. p. 28.  

341.                     Jump up ^  "Jehovah's Theocratic Organization Today". The Watchtower. February 1, 1952. pp. 79–81.  

342.                     Jump up ^  "Exposing the Devil's Subtle Designs". The Watchtower. 15 January 1983. p. 27. From the very outset of his rebellion Satan called into question God's way of doing things. He promoted independent thinking. ... How is such independent thinking manifested? A common way is by questioning the counsel that is provided by God's visible organization.  

343.                     Jump up ^  "Visits from Older Men Benefit God's People". The Watchtower. February 15, 1979. p. 20. In a world where people are tossed about by confusing winds of religious doctrine, Jehovah's people need to be stable, full-grown Christians. (Eph. 4:13, 14) Their position must be steadfast, not shifting quickly because of independent thinking or emotional pressures.  

344.                     Jump up ^  "Building a Firm Foundation in Christ". The Watchtower. May 1, 1964. pp. 277–278. It is through the columns of The Watchtower that Jehovah provides direction and constant Scriptural counsel to his people, and it requires careful study and attention to details in order to apply this information, to get a full understanding of the principles involved, and to assure ourselves of right thinking on these matters. It is in this way that we "are thoroughly able to grasp mentally with all the holy ones" the fullness of our commission and of the preaching responsibility that Jehovah has placed on all Christians as footstep followers of his Son. Any other course would produce independent thinking and cause division.  

345.                     Jump up ^  See also Raymond Franz, In Search of Christian Freedom, pg. 358.  

346.                     Jump up ^  "Will You Heed Jehovah's Clear Warnings?". The Watchtower. July 15, 2011. p. 15.  

347.                     Jump up ^  The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1984, passim.  

348.                     Jump up ^  Alan Rogerson, Millions Now Living Will Never Die, Constable, 1969, page 50.  

349.                     Jump up ^  Beckford 1975, pp. 204, 221, The habit of questioning or qualifying Watch Tower doctrine is not only under-developed among the Witnesses: it is strenuously combated at all organizational levels  

350.                     Jump up ^  Botting, Heather; Gary Botting (1984). The Orwellian World of Jehovah's Witnesses. University of Toronto Press. p. 90. ISBN 0-8020-6545-7. Most Witnesses, although capable of intelligent, reasonable thought, have as part of the payment for paradise delegated authority to the organization for directing their lives ... and finally abrogate all responsibility and rights over their personal lives—in effect, allowing the society to do their thinking for them.  

351.                     Jump up ^  Alan Rogerson, Millions Now Living Will Never Die, Constable, 1969, page 178, "The newly converted Witness must conform immediately to the doctrines of the Watchtower Society, thus whatever individuality of mind he possessed before conversion is liable to be eradicated if he stays in the movement.".  

352.                     Jump up ^  James A. Beverley, Crisis of Allegiance, Welch Publishing Company, Burlington, Ontario, 1986, ISBN 0-920413-37-4, pages 25–26, 101.  

353.                     Jump up ^  Holden, 2002 & Portrait, p. 153  

354.                     Jump up ^  Alan Rogerson, Millions Now Living Will Never Die, Constable, 1969, page 2, "In addition to the prevalent ignorance outside the Witness movement, there is much ignorance within it. It will soon become obvious to the reader that the Witnesses are an indoctrinated people whose beliefs and thoughts are shaped by the Watchtower Society."  

355.                     Jump up ^  R. Franz, "In Search of Christian Freedom", chapter 12  

356.                     Jump up ^  "Maintaining our Christian Oneness". The Watchtower. August 15, 1988. pp. 28–30.  

357.                     Jump up ^  The Routledge History of the Holocaust, Routledge, 2010, "Labeling the Jehovah's Witnesses as totalitarian trivializes the term totalitarian and defames the Jehovah's Witnesses."  

358.                     Jump up ^  Holden, 2002 & Portrait, pp. x, 7  

359.                     Jump up ^  Penton 1997, pp. 174–176